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BIOL 2311 week 6

by: Victoria Notetaker

BIOL 2311 week 6 BIOL 2311

Victoria Notetaker

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Lecture notes for 02-23 and 02-25.
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Al Dahwi
Class Notes
BIOL 2311
25 ?




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2311 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Al Dahwi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
Chapter 5: The Integumentary System Announcements: o Scantrons returned o Exam 2 moved to Thursday March 3, 2016 o Thursday 02-25 advising guest speaker Refer to Figure 5.6 Skin appendages: Structure of a hair and hair follicle (page 158)  Cuticle: single layer of cells o In the deeper portion of root: cells contain nucleus Keep in  Keratinization is still occurring in cells in the mind for EXAM root o In the shaft portion: cells have no nuclei due to apoptosis  Keratinization is complete when cuticle reaches shaft  Cells in shaft overlap each other: like roof shingles  Avoids tangling and matting of hair  Structure of the hair follicle: surrounds the root ONLY o Invaginated inward in the dermis  Pulls part of the epidermis and dermis downward  Connective tissue root sheath (peripheral connective tissue sheath): outermost layer: made of dermal tissue (dermis)  Connective tissue characteristics of the dermis  Glassy membrane: basal lamina serving as basement membrane separating connective tissue from epithelial tissue  Glassy due to shiny when stained  Epithelial root sheath: made up of two portions  External epithelial root sheath: tope portion contains all the layer of the epidermis o Deeper down the layers become limited to the stratum basale  Stratum basale at bottom portion of the hair follicle is responsible for the hair matrix  Internal epithelial root sheath: cells running in a tubular fashion acting to separate the layers of the hair follicle from the hair o Hair bulb: onion shaped  Houses a finger-like projecting area: hair papilla  Contains dermal (dermis) tissue  Loose areolar connective tissue rich in blood supply o Source of nutrition for the growing hair  Hair matrix: germinal layer  Made up of stem cells capable of continuous division  Arises from the stratum basale of the external epithelial root sheath 2  Hair growth stops when there is damage in the hair matrix o Melanocyte: determines hair color  Melanin color range is responsible for hair color due to transfer to cortical layer  Red hair: due to melanin BUT that pigment contains iron  Iron containing melanin: pheomelanin  Grey/white hair: due to replacement of cortical cells being replaced by air spaces  Drastic decrease in tirosinades: enzyme that helps form melanin Refer to Figure 5.1 Skin Structures (page 151)  Nerve structures of hair: o Hair follicle receptor responsible for touch sensation of hair movement (root hair plexus)  Sebaceous (oil) gland: thought to be an outgrowth of the hair follicle  Arrector pili muscle: not a skeletal muscle o Made up of smooth muscle cells o Originating from superficial portion of the dermis and inserts into the hair follicle o MAJOR function: Responsible for the release of the sebum from sebaceous gland into the follicle o Minor function: innervated by the autonomic nervous system  Changes the orientation of the hair to the surface of the skin  Contraction of arrector pili= goosebumps 3  Physiological stressful condition: cold temp  Emotional stressful condition: fear or nervousness  Curls due to section of the hair Refer to Figure 5.7 Structure of a nail (page 160)  Nail: plates of keratinized epidermal (epithelial) cells  Regions of nail: 3 major regions- represent superficial epidermal layers of the keratinized plates o Free edge: extends from body of nail o Body of nail: visible attached portion of nail o Root of nail: embedded portion of the nail in the skin  The underlying layers represent the deeper epidermal layers: nail bed o Proximal portion of nail bed: nail matrix-germinal layer made of stem cells responsible for growth  Surface features of the nail: o 1. Lunule: whitish moon-like proximal portion of nail  White due to thick layer of nail matrix o 2. Nail folds: lateral and proximal that overlap nail  Proximal nail fold: cuticle (eponychium)  Made of stratum corneum o 3. Hyponycheium: portion of nail dirt accumulates (book)  Region of stratum corneum cells that secure the free edge of nail to finger tip Refer to Figure 5.1 (page 151) 4  Sweat glands o Eccrine: secrete to the outside Chapter 5: Integumentary System  Guest Speaker Lucy Snelson: spoke about advising th o March 7 advising begins  Catalog available o Liberal Arts Advising: (915) 747-5290 o Registration dates: th  Seniors: March 28 th  Juniors: April 4 th  Sophomore: April 11  Freshman: April 18 th  Early registration for military, SSSP, CASS  Exam 2 is Thursday: March 3, 2016  Sweat glands o Eccrine glands: secreting (all glands secrete)/refer to external secreting  Sweat to outside skin surface Refer to Figure 5.1 (pages 151)  Sweat glands most abundant on the forehead, palms of hands , and soles of feet o Simple tubular coiled: unbranched, tube-like 5  Sweat is the hypotonic filtration of blood that passes through the secretory cells o 98-99% of sweat is water o Sodium chloride (salt): contains a pathogen killing element o Sweat is acidic in pH (4-6)  Acid mantle  Sweating controlled by sympathetic nervous branch of the autonomic nervous system o Heat induced: controlling body temperature  Starts in the forehead then spreads inferiorly to the rest of the body o Emotionally induced: cold sweat (happens even if external temperature is cold)  Apocrine sweat glands: axillary and anogenital areas o Merocrine in spite of the name: thought to be apocrine initially but still referred to as apocrine o Simple coil tubular glands  Larger than the eccrine sweat glands  Located in deeper region of the dermis  Sometimes in the hypodermis  Releases sweat into the hair follicle o Product is sweat: apocrine sweat glands  Viscus: thick  Contains fatty substances and proteins o Sweat is odorless but the bacteria on the skin decomposing the organic elements in the sweat cause the smell 6  Under control of the sympathetic nervous system o Glands release due to sex hormones  Don’t function until after puberty  Not associated with body temperature control  Ceruminous glands: modified apocrine glands found in external ear canal o Cerumen (earwax)- sticky material: traps pathogens  Not dirt  Created with sweat mixing with sebum from nearby sebaceous glands  Mammary glands: modified apocrine sweat gland secretes milk  Sebaceous (oil) glands: o All over the body except on the thick skin: palms of hands and soles of feet Refer to figure 5.5 Cutaneous glands (page 161)  Simple branched alveolar gland  Sebum: oily product of gland plus the cellular fragments of cell (holocrine) o Bactericidal agent: kills bacterial (opposite: bacteriostatic inhibits the growth of bacteria) o Duct opening released into the hair follicle  Arrector pili: squeezes sebum from follicle to the skin surface o Controlled by sex hormone: will not function until after puberty o Do not control body temp. Functions of the Skin 7 1. Skin is an important element in protection a. Acts as a physical, chemical, and biological barrier i. Chemical barrier: secretions of the skin and melanin 1. Sweat: acidity makes up the acidic mantle a. Acidity inhibits the growth of bacteria on the skin (bacteriostatic) b. Dermcidin: kills pathogens 2. Defisins: punch holes in bacteria to kill it 3. Melanin: protects against UV rays ii. Physical barrier: due to the thickness of the stratum corneum, made of several layers and cells are thick 1. External surface of keratinocytes are extremely thick due to the lipid layer preventing water loss iii. Biological barrier: antigen presenting cells 1. Epidermal dendritic cell (Langerhans Cell): 1 line of defense-captures pathogen with cytoplasmic extensions and engulfs the pathogen to brake it down, then presented to the T-lymphocytes 2. If the pathogen makes it the dermindit will be faced with the macrophage: 2 line of defense Cutaneous Sensation  Light touch o Tactile disc (Merkel): Epidermis-dermis junction o Meissner’s (=tactile) corpuscles: in dermal papillae 8 o Root hair plexus  Deep pressure: Ex. bump hand with table o Pacinian corpuscles: deep in dermis o Pain receptors: free nerve endings in the dermal papillae throughout the skin (hurts longer due to more severe effect) Refer to Flowchart (sending to email):  Hot temp causes an increase in body temp which triggers SNS (sympathetic nervous system) o Activate sweat glands to release sweat, sweat evaporates using the heat from the blood= decrease in body temp o Inhibition of the effect of the SNS on the dermal blood vessels causing vasodilation (increase diameter of the blood vessel) causing increase of BF which allows heat to radiate out through skin Refer to second flowchart:  Cold external temperature activates SNS causing vasoconstriction (decreasing the diameter of blood vessel) reduces BF close to skin surface by redirecting to internal organs to prevent heat loss rd Refer the 3 flowchart:  Metabolic absorption of calcium in body o Exposure to sunlight is important o In blood vessels of dermis there is a modified cholesterol molecule: vitamin D precursor Refer to 4 flowchart:  Metabolism of steroid hormones 9 o Cortisone (lipid-soluble) applied to skin converts to hydrocortisone due to enzymes in keratinocytes to reduce inflammation th Refer to 5 flowchart:  What is the importance of a blood reservoir o Vigorous exercise activated SNS to vasoconstrict dermal blood vessels in order to divert the blood to the skeletal muscles needing the blood. Skin is one way we can get rid of nitrogenous waste materials in the sweat. NOT THE MAJOR ROUTE: kidneys major route and sweat is minor route. 10


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