SOCY 305 Notes (2/23/16 - 2/25/16)
SOCY 305 Notes (2/23/16 - 2/25/16) SOCY 305 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 305 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jennifer M. Augustine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Sociology of the Family in Sociology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Nonmarital Fertility (Childbirth Outside of Marriage) Rates of nonmarital fertility highest among blacks Share of nonmarital fertility highest among whites Data by income => mainly poor women have nonmarital births => nonmarital fertility families are poor Why Decrease in Nonmarital Fertility and Marriage? Different access to methods of contraception Alternative ways to form a family without getting married (cohabitation) Family is in decline and norms that govern our behaviors might be weakening Might be issues with contraception and the pregnancies might be unintended/mistake/accident Cognitive Dissonance => mental gap between what you want and what you do => unplanned pregnancy, but not unwanted Reading (Edin and Kefalas => 2005) 2 parts (What other assumptions did the reading challenge?) 1. Why Poor Women Do Not Marry or Delay Marriage o Poor women can't contracept (can't afford, don't know how) o Want to work the welfare system (want to get their government checks) o Women do it to keep their man (baby will make him stay o Women gain status in poor neighborhoods by having kids 2. Why They Have Children Given Their Current Circumstances Why Put Motherhood Before Marriage? Kids are expensive to take care of/up bring You want to invest in them Most expected to marry, but the delay was caused by: o Money (on part of both man and woman) o Money bought women power (have agency, make decisions, not be subservient to husbands) o Low levels of trust (fear of infidelity) Cheating not tolerated within marriage Lack of Trust: Infidelity Drug and alcohol use Instability Inability to pay bills or keep a job Low trust levels o => delay in marriage Women hoping to address problems listed above. Believed that all the good men were already taken. We date/marry people who inhabit same place as us. Extended engagement to get to know the person Fear marriage would activate more traditional gender roles (men feel like they own their women in a marital union) Weak foundations of marriage Motherhood Having children provides meaning It matured/tamed them ("saved" them) Gave them a second chance at mobility (hope that theirchildren would be more successful) Provided/filled a void (motivated them) Dress kids in name brand clothes --> sign of respectability (well-dressed and clean child) Increase women's self-esteem (saw themselves differently) Bond between parent and child Value of Motherhood Identity Low income women don't have as much access to different social roles (like middle class women do) Multigenerational Household Horizontal relationship - husband/wife, brother/sister Vertical relationship - parent/child "Living with the grandparents are back in style" TODAY => 20% of 65+ people live in multigenerational households 1990 => 16% of 65% people live in multigenerational households Multigenerational Family Include: 3 generation family (grandparent, adult, kid) "skipped generation" (grandparent, grandchild) o NO adult parent Parents and adult children (25+) o My generation is increasingly moving back in with parents after college Multigenerational households make up 5.4% of all U.S. households 30% increase over the past decade Multigenerational Household => more common among minorities => less common among white families Asian (83%) and Hispanic (63%) multigenerational family => on member is an immigrant (foreign born) --> Blacks (31%) --> Whites (10%) Parent-maintained Households => 31% Grandparent-maintained Households => 67% Majority of U.S. multigenerational households are headed by a grandparent Why is this increasing? Cost of living is on the rise (particularly housing) (more expensive and difficult to establish yourself financially nowadays than it was for your parents) Women are working more (child care is more expensive and harder to find reliable/good caregivers) (half of all grandparents are caring for their children) Increasingly likely to return home with parents after college: Don't have a job (fewer economic opportunity) Educational credentials increased o Continued pursuit of education Student loans => DEBT Haven't established your own family yet (no spouse, kids) Boomerang Generation 1 in 5 kids ages 20-30 are living with their parents, less than 10% were living with their parents one generation ago Bengston (2011) Reading Importance of multi-generational bonds/networks/relationships is growing stronger o => latent networks that we can activate in times of need Response to prevailing theories on the family o 1. It is in decline o It is diversifying He proposes a third that is a response to each of these frameworks Families' needs are changing that cannot be fulfilled by the inner/core family How so? o 1. Multigenerational ties fulfill functions of nuclear family o 2. Family functions are diversifying in unrecognized ways 1. Living longer – life expectancy a. Co-survivorship (grandparents are more healthy than in the past) b. Healthiness 2. Increase in divorce and single parents (without second parent in household, they look to other family members for support) 3. Increase in family complexity/diversity a. Kin ties we didn't have before => "step-kin" 4. Change in age structure from pyramid to rectangle (family size getting smaller) a. Increased longevity b. Decreased fertility c. Smaller nuclear family Provision of support even when not co-residing latent network of kin available in times of need Why Trends Important? Challenge conceptualization of family and idea about how families function Implications for family members o Grandparents effects on grandchildren o Effects on family dynamics between grnerations
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