Medieval Art History, Week 2, continued...
Medieval Art History, Week 2, continued... ART 483, Art History
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Mason on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 483, Art History at Fort Hays State University taught by Erica Bittel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Medieval Art History in Art at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Jan. 25 , 2016 Medieval Art – Chapter 1: Introduction to Medieval Art Textbook Pages 112, continued… Christianity became a major religion within the Roman Empire, and as a result, it needed an organized governing structure and a coherent philosophy o The Church adopted the Roman imperial model – provincial government overseen by centralized rule o And in an effort to appeal to the educated classes, Christians turned to Greek philosophy St. Augustine St. Gregory of Alazianzus The “Universal Soul” Arch of Titus, ca. 81 CE, concrete and white marble, Rome, Italy o Titus’ brother commissioned it Spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem, relief in the passageway of the Arch of Titus, ca. 81 CE, marble o Spoils from Jerusalem brought to Rome Menorah (lamp stand) Hadrian/Constantine Hunting Boar and Sacrificing to Apollo Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum from the Arch of Constantine, ca. 130138 CE, marble, Rome, Italy Tondi – circular compositions Arch of Constantine, 312315 CE, Rome, Italy Classical vs. Medieval Art Greek artists observed nature and then attempted to create idealized representations Roman artists worked in a more realistic or naturalistic style Medieval Art is characterized by a sense of expressionism and abstraction that is not necessarily related to visual appearances Christianity in the Roman Empire Emperor Septimus Severus was the first to officially acknowledge Christianity o Christians allowed to practice, but not convert others Under Gallienus, Christianity became a “permitted religion” Diocletian required citizens to make sacrifices only to Jupiter, the Roman gods, and the deified emperors o Monotheistic (one God) Christians and Jews were imprisoned and often executed as martyrs for their faith Emperor Diocletian completely reorganized the governing structure of the vast Roman Empire o Devised a form of government called a tetrarchy, or “rule of four” o Required that each “Augustus,” one from the East, and one from the West, designate a subordinate and heir, both holding the title of “Caesar” o Eventually, Constantine (a “Caesar” in the tetrarchy) gained control of both the Western and Eastern part of the empire Roman Empire West East Augustus Maximian Caesar Augustus Diocletian Caesar Constantine the Great from the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, 325326 CE, marble, Rome, Italy (40 ft tall) th Jan. 27 , 2016 Medieval Art – Chapter 1: Introduction to Medieval Art Textbook Pages 112, continued… Hierarchic Scale Christianity Under Constantine In the year 313, Constantine issued the Edict of Milan o Archetype of religious toleration o It allowed Christians, as well as the followers of other religious faiths, to practice whatever form of worship they chose Christianity Under Theodosius The Pax Romana, that existed under Constantine, dissipated upon his death o When Theodosius became emperor in 379 CE, steps were once again taken to restabilize the Roman Empire o Theodosius was determined to unify his subjects through religion Established Christianity as the sole religion of the empire Official art continued to represent the emperor in a godlike, superhuman manner Missorium of Theodosius, 388 CE, found in Estremadura, Spain (silver plate) Medieval Art – wide/big eyes, elongated noses, heavy brows Theodosius also established the Roman capital at Constantinople At the same time, the city of Rome was experiencing political and economic decline o Remained the administrative center of the Western Church o To counter outside threats, the government in the West relocated from Rome to Milan Under the direction of the bishop, St. Ambrose o And the capital later moved to Ravenna o In the year 410 CE, Rome fell to the Gothic invaders Relative Size = Relative Importance Medieval Art – Chapter 2: Early Christian Period Jewish & Christian Art Before Constantine Both Christians and Jews separated themselves from the official Roman religious practices of the period – most notably, the worship of images of multiple gods As a result, the study of early Jewish and Christian art is dependent, for the most part, on funerary art o Paintings and some sculpture have been found in underground cemeteries known as catacombs Loculi – niches carved into the walls of the catacombs Cubicula – small chambers used for funerary rituals Catacomb of Priscilla, 3 century, Rome Cubiculum of the Veiled Lady, Catacomb of Priscilla (reproduction of ceiling), 3 rd century, Rome Teacher and Pupils, Orant, and Woman and Child, Cubiculum of the Veiled Lady, Catacomb of Priscilla, 3 century, Rome, wall painting in a lunette th Jan. 29 , 2016 Medieval Art – Chapter 2: Early Christian Period Continued… The Good Shepherd, Cubiculum of the Veiled Lady, Catacomb of Priscilla, rd 3 century, Rome, wall painting Jonah is Vomited Out The Sacrifice of Isaac Three Children in the Furnace The palm leaf is symbolic of victory The dove was representative of the Holy Spirit The anchor indicated hope The cross was typically disguised as the mast of Jonah’s ship, an anchor, or as the Egyptian ankh The fish was a symbol of Christ o The disciples as ‘fishers of men’ o Baptism Swimming in the waters of baptism The story of Jonah, 3 century, marble rd Christ/Helios, Mausoleum of the Julii, 3 century, mosaic, Vatican Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, ca. 359, marble, Vatican Two Themes: The guarantee of Salvation The Triumph of the Roman/Christian Church Traditio Legis – Giving of the Law/Passing down of the Law Caelus – Personification of the Heavens Augustus of Primaporta (detail of cuirass), 1 century, CE, marble Iconographer – a maker of figures or drawings especially of a conventional type o Master of Sculpture of early representational Christian art (religious imagery)
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