PSYC 160, Week 7 Notes
PSYC 160, Week 7 Notes PSYC 160
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Dowell on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kristen Davidson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Chapter Two Continued Section 2.3 Prenatal Growth and Birth 02/22/16 1. Cost of Fertility a. Each attempt at getting pregnant using fertility drugs, artificial insemination, and IVF costs up to $1,200-1,300 b. Multiple births increases odds of premature birth, which means higher hospital bills c. Premature babies are usually born underweight, which means lifelong health problems d. Example: Octomom birthed 8 babies which cost approximately $400,000 per child 2. Teratogens a. May harm or lead to death of fetus/embryo b. Types: If you’re pregnant, ask your i. Drugs doctor before taking any 1. Nonprescription – aspirin, allergy medicine, diet pills medication. 2. Prescription – antibiotics, anti-depressants, Xanax, birth control ii. Alcohol iii. Smoking – tobacco, marijuana iv. Caffeine c. Environmental Pollutants to Avoid during Pregnancy nd i. 2 hand smoke, ii. Lead paint iii. Aerosol cans – Febreeze, hair spray iv. Cat litter v. Mercury often found in fish vi. Pesticides found in food vii. Radiation (x-rays) d. Infectious Diseases i. Rubella, measles ii. HIV/AIDS 1. 1 out of 4 infants born to an HIV+ mother will catch the virus in the womb and die before age 3 e. Age of Parents i. An older dad means an increased chance of autism and/or schizophrenia ii. Dads exposed to teratogens, such as mercury or radiation, often have a decreased sperm count 3. Childbirth a. Easiest way to give birth is standing up b. Where i. Hospitals ii. At home with a midwife 1. Less stressful in the comfort of your home, but can be dangerous if something goes wrong c. Some societies have women give birth in shelters for everyone to come watch and celebrate d. In Kenya, when a woman is pregnant, the husband can no longer go hunting. He needs to stay by the woman’s side. e. In Northern India, blood is seen as a contaminant, so childbirth can be an unpleasant experience. f. In the U.S. Church of Scientology, there is a belief that silence is essential, therefore women cannot utter a sound during birth g. Essentially, the childbirth experience can be different in different cultures. 4. After Effects of Birth a. New mothers often experience postpartum depression or Baby Blues b. There are many reasons why this can happen, including… i. Hormones, weight gain, exhaustion ii. Realization of responsibility for a new life c. To battle depression, women need support from their significant other, family, and friends d. There is no proof that postpartum depression exists, but we do tend to see depression in moms who have already experienced depression. Chapter Three Section 3.1 Physical Growth and Change 1. Principles of Growth a. Infancy sees a change in growth every single day b. Slows down during middle childhood c. Puberty consists of rapid changes 2. Infancy a. Brain maturation b. Curious as cats c. At birth, babies are an average of 7 pounds and 20 inches long d. After babies are born, they lose weight, but it’s mostly water e. Infants gain an average of an ounce per day after first 2 months f. At 5 months their weight has doubled g. At 1 year their weight has tripled 3. Preschool (3 to 6 years) a. Least amount of weight put on during this time b. Approx. 36 inches tall c. At age 2, a child is half as tall as what they will be as an adult d. Girls tend to be slightly smaller than boys 4. Middle Childhood (6 to 11 years) a. Also known as the calm period b. Slow but consistent growth c. In India, boys tend to be taller and heavier than girls, because boys are more valued and given better care d. In the U.S., African American and Latina girls tend to be heavier than Caucasian girls 5. Puberty a. For girls i. Menstruation starts around age 11 or 12 and as early as 8 ii. African American girls tend to start earlier iii. Weight and body fat play a role in reproductive maturity iv. A girls first period provides a glimpse into their future body type and health v. Study of 17,000 girls from 8 countries found a gene that determines when you start having a period 1. The sooner a girl starts her period usually means a shorter and pudgier physique 2. The later a girl starts, the taller and thinner she will be. She will also have a decreased risk for breast and endometrial cancer vi. Only 23% of females saw their first period as something to celebrate vii. Second sex characteristics (i.e. pubic hair) appear earlier for African American and Latina girls. Sometimes as early as 3 b. For boys i. Starts around age 13 or 14 and as early as 10 ii. 62% of males saw their first ejaculation as something to celebrate 6. Psychological Change a. Body image affects females more than males, because of media b. Girls who mature early are more likely to drink, smoke, and have sex sooner c. Late maturing girls tend to be categorized into a lower social status d. Boys who mature early are more likely to be seen as confident, attractive, and are often bullies e. Late maturing boys tend to be more anxious and bullied 7. Early Adulthood a. Subtle changes b. Early 30s shows signs of sagging skin, changes in muscle elasticity, and thinning hair 8. Middle Adulthood a. Changes in appearance b. Menopause in women starts as early as 30s and as late as mid 50s c. Andropause in men is defined as a decrease in testosterone, low libido, and erectile dysfunction d. Decline in motor skills i. Neural noise – increases in neural activity in the central nervous system causes a decrease in motor skills ii. Older people create strategies to cope will loss of these skills, like instead of tying shoelaces they use Velcro 9. Late Adulthood a. Changes in physical appearance in health b. Inactive vs. active elderly c. Engaging in aerobic exercise and video games can help maintain motor skills Section 3.2 10.Motor Skill Development a. Gross motor skills – large movements, such as crawling and rolling over b. Fine motor skills – small movements, like writing c. Infants start to gain muscle and become more active i. At 6 months they begin inching forward ii. At 8-10 months they are crawling iii. At 1 year they can walk by themselves 11.Brain Growth and Development a. Two rules i. Cephalocaudal – describes the general growth pattern of organisms to develop starting at the head and working its way down ii. Proximodistal - development of motor skills starts at the center of an organism and radiates outwards b. Dynamics system theory – for us to develop motor skills, we need to be motivated to retrieve an object i. Ex. baby sees their teddy bear across the room and moves towards it 12.Different Cultures, Different Approaches a. In Ache culture, infants are restricted from physical activity b. On the other hand, the Kipsigis believe infants should be very active and will place their infant in a hole to keep them upright and encourage development of motor skills c. In the Algonquin culture, infants spend most of their first year strapped on to board and placed on their parents backs d. Jamaican mothers regularly massage their infants e. Research says most kids reach milestones at the same time 13.How We Measure Change a. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale - represents a guide that helps parents, health care providers and researchers understand the newborn's language Chapter Four Section 4.2 Illness and Well-being 02/24/16 1. Eating Disorders a. In the U.S. many kids aged 2-11 are malnourished, because of junk food and fast food b. In the U.S., 15% of kids are obese c. 1 out of 20 adolescence are obese These statistics are updated d. Consequences of obesity and don’t match the textbook. i. Junior diabetes ii. Sleep apnea iii. Hypertension iv. Hip problems v. Low self-esteem from bullying e. African American and Latino kids have higher rates of obesity f. White females tend to have eating disorders, like anorexia, bulimia or a combination of both 2. Anorexia Nervosa a. Starvation, which may lead to death b. 15-20% of anorexics will starve themselves to death c. About 10% of anorexics are males d. Tends to affect well educated, middle to upper income females e. Starts around early to mid-teens f. How to spot an anorexic: tend to select low calorie food and then pick at it 3. Bulimia a. Binging and then purging through vomiting and/or laxatives b. Bulimics maintain a fairly normal weight c. Creates dental problems, ulcers, messes with electrolytes d. Associated with depression and low self-esteem e. Can only be categorized as bulimic if you purge 2 times a week for 3 consecutive months f. Starts around late adolescence g. 12-22% of college age females are affected h. How to spot a bulimic: will eat a lot and then go the bathroom 4. Medias Role a. Anorexia websites b. Magazines c. Idea of perfect figure 5. Threats to our Well-being: STIs a. In the U.S., approx. 20 million new infections occur every year and half of those cases are from the age range of 15-24 b. In the U.S. 110 million people are currently affected by STIs c. Costs U.S. 16 billion every year to treat STI cases d. According to statistics, African Americans and Latinos are more affected by STIs, because public health clinics have to report STIs as opposed to private practices, which only have to report cases of HIV and AIDS. e. Gonorrhea – most common in U.S. i. When not treated it can lead to infertility and pain in pelvis for women ii. If you have gonorrhea, you are 3-5x more likely to contract HIV f. Chlamydia – most common of STIs i. 4 million Americans affected ii. No symptoms iii. Curable g. Syphilis i. Can lead to paralysis and/or death h. Oral and genital herpes i. No known cure i. HIV/AIDS i. In 2011, over 1 million were affected by it and numbers are continuously increasing ii. African Americans and gay and bisexual men are most affected iii. Seeing an increase in college age teens and gay men iv. 50,000 new cases are diagnosed each year v. Worldwide, 35 million are living with AIDS vi. 36 million have died from AIDS since 1981 vii. Every day, 5,700 die from AIDS, particularly people in African countries viii. Oral sex can cause throat cancer (HPV) and people who have had 5 or more partners increase chances of contracting HPV by 250%
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