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PSY 124 Chapter 5, Week 6 Notes

by: Layne Franklin

PSY 124 Chapter 5, Week 6 Notes PSY 124 - 03

Marketplace > University of Indianapolis > Psychlogy > PSY 124 - 03 > PSY 124 Chapter 5 Week 6 Notes
Layne Franklin
GPA 2.9

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These notes might cover some material that will be on the exam.
Fndtns/Psyc Science I:Methods
Jordan Sparks Waldron
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne Franklin on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 124 - 03 at University of Indianapolis taught by Jordan Sparks Waldron in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Fndtns/Psyc Science I:Methods in Psychlogy at University of Indianapolis.


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Date Created: 02/26/16
Chapter 5: Selecting Research Participants  Population   Entire set of people in which researcher is interested  Sample  The subset of the population we collect data from  Sampling  The process by which a researcher selects participants for a study Types of Samples  Probability Sample  Likelihood that any particular individual in the population will be selected for the  sample can be specified  Nonprobability Sample  No method of knowing probability that a case will be chosen Part I: Probability Samples  When do we want them?  When we want to estimate proportion of people in a population with certain issues  In other words:  we need a “Representative Sample”  A sample from which we can draw accurate, unbiased estimates of the  characteristics of the population of interest  External validity:  extent to which results of a study generalize to larger  population  Errors of Estimation  Sampling Error   Population vs. sample characteristics   Entire school vs. 200 students at that school  Error of Estimation (Margin of Error)  Degree to which the sample data are expected to deviate from the population  Function of three things  Sample Size  Population Size  Variance of the Data Simple Random Sampling  Simple Random Sample  Every possible sample of the desired size has the same chance of being selected  from the population  Sampling Frame  A list of the population from which the sample is to be drawn  Have to know how many individuals are in the population, sampling frame has to  list all of them   Selecting Random Samples  Table of Random Numbers  Computer Programs  Random Digit Dialing Stratified Random Sampling  Stratified Random Sampling  Population is divided into subgroups (strata)   Randomly selected from each subgroup  Stratum  Subset of the population sharing a particular characteristic  Gender, Race, Location  Still need a sampling frame  Proportionate Sampling Method  Cases are selected from each stratum in proportion to their prevalence in the  population  Systematic Sampling  Involves taking every ‘Xth’ individuals for the sample  Do not need Sampling Frame at start of study   Not a simple random sample  Not everyone has an equal chance of being selected for the study  Cluster Sampling  Sample groupings/clusters of participants  Clusters are based on naturally occurring groups  Usually in close proximity  All psychology majors in Indiana  Randomly select 10 colleges/universities in Indiana  List of psychology majors from these schools  Randomly select students from the lists  Advantages  Sampling frame of every individual in the population not needed to begin (All we  need is a list of clusters)  Less expensive, less effort, because:   Multistage Cluster Sampling  Divide population into large clusters & randomly sample clusters  Randomly sample smaller clusters within those large clusters  If needed, sample again from those clusters  Continue until the appropriate number of participants is chosen  Counties → Schools → Classrooms → Students  Nonresponse Problem  Failure to obtain responses from individuals that researchers select for the sample  Why is Nonresponse a Problem?  Participants in the study may be systematically different from non- responders  Threatens representativeness  Preventing Nonresponse  Be persistent in contacting participants  Offer incentives for participation  Limit the amount of time required  Tell people in advance that they will be contacted about participation  Misgeneralization  Generalizing the results of a study to a population that differs from the one from which the sample was drawn  Literary Digest Example  2 Million voters surveyed via telephone about 1936 Election  Predicted that Alfred Landon would beat Franklin Roosevelt by 15% points.  Roosevelt was elected with 62% of popular vote.


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