Neurological Considerations EXSC 322
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ticynn London on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 322 at Old Dominion University taught by Phil Sabatini in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Anatomical Kinesiology in Physical Education at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Neurological Considerations Central Nervous System CNS Brain and spinal cord Thalamus y t J l Cervical nerves Head and neck max 7 a Diaphragm an Del tnids biceps Wrist extenders Cerebellum 1 Spinal cord Che 3i muscles Spinal Corcl Abdominal 7 3ij rool muscles x I Dorsal root o ganglion lumbar nerves p 39 r 7 V I i Leg muscles Gray marker entra root motor i White matter Sacral nerves Bowel bladder r Sexual iuncliun Peripheral Nervous System Branches of nerves that lie outside spinal cord Muscular movement Anterior 1rilew Lateral and medial pecioral Ulnar Posterior View i ABCE SSDW ENE Suprascapular Axillary Spinal Nerves Neuron 0 Functional unit of nervous system Sensory neurons 0 Enter spinal cord on the dorsal back side Carry info from muscle back to system 0 Afferent pathway Motorneurons 0 Exit spinal cord on the ventral front side Carry info from system to muscle 0 Efferent pathway Sensory Neurons Re ex Involuntary response to stimuli If threshold level reached triggers 1 Contraction of stretched muscle 2 Synergist muscle activity 3 Reciprocal inhibition Monosynaptic re ex arc Stimulation of sensory neuron facilitates the stimulation of a spinal motor neuron Myotatic re ex Stretch re ex Initiated by stretching the muscle Facilitates a contraction of the same muscle via muscle spindle stimulation Muscle Spindles 0 Parallel to muscle fibers Respond to stretch Connect to fascicles Intrafusal fibers Type I primary afferent neurons Sensitive to the rate of muscle stretch Velocity sensors Sensitive to small length change Sensitivity decreases with slower or larger changes in length Type II secondary afferent neurons Sensitive to magnitude of muscle stretch Length sensors Some sensitivity to rate of muscle stretch Golgi Tendon Organ 0 Found at musculoskeletal junction 0 Spindle shaped collection of collagen fascicles that connect to muscle fibers 0 Monitors force or tension in the muscle 0 Generates quotinversequot stretch refleX Joint Sensory Receptors Ruffini Ending Found in the joint capsule Responds to change in joint position and velocity Pacinian Corpuscle Found in capsule and connective tissue Responds to pressure created by muscles and pain in joint Pacinian Corpuscle Press Li re i Ruffini Endings 3 Joint position and velocity Free Nerve Endings Pain sensation A bl a I j il 39 Neural Adaptations to Anaerobic Training 0 Increasing neuromuscular ef ciency is essential to maximizing Strength and Power 0 The Main Adaptation from Anaerobic Training is Muscle Recruitment 0 Type of Fiber Recruited Type 1 Type IIa Type 11b 0 Rate at which the muscles fire Timing and pattern of discharge during a contraction Synchronization 0 Increased Stretch Re ex Reduced sensitivity in Inhibitory Mechanisms like the Golgi Tendon Organ GTO Selective Recruitment Principle In Highly Trained athletes the nervous system will adapt and allow the athletes to recruit out of order for greater force production Effects of Training Specificity of training Important for enhancement of neural input to muscle One limb vs two limbs Bilateral Deficit Decrease in neural stimulation and muscle force production as task complexity increases Crossover Effect Training one limb neurologically enhances the activity and increases the voluntary strength in contralateral limb Stretchcontract mechanism Stretchshorten cycle Eccentric muscle contraction preceding concentric muscle action 0 Diminishes inhibitory input to agonist Increases neural stimulation Via stretch re ex Ballistic stretching Segments are bounced to achieve terminal range of motion Not recommended for the improvement of exibility because of stimulation of Type Ia sensory neurons Static stretching Better for improving exibility Decreases Type Ia sensory neuron response
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