New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

POLS 2312-001 Chapter Five Notes [Full]

by: M.G

POLS 2312-001 Chapter Five Notes [Full] POLS 2312-001

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > POLS 2312-001 > POLS 2312 001 Chapter Five Notes Full
GPA 3.85

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes will be crucial for acing the next exam!
State and Local Government
Kimberly Harper
Class Notes
POLS 2312, Kimberly Harper
25 ?




Popular in State and Local Government

Popular in Department

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by M.G on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 2312-001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kimberly Harper in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views.


Reviews for POLS 2312-001 Chapter Five Notes [Full]


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/26/16
Chapter Five Lecture Notes   Amendments  ● 15th   ○ 1870  ○ Allows men regardless of color to vote  ● 19th   ○ Women’s right to vote  ● 24th  ○ Poll taxes  ● 26th  ○ 18+ right to vote    Civic Attitudes  ● Apathy  ○ A lack of interest  ○ Young adults and teens are mostly apathetic towards voting  ○ If you don’t care about the government, they don’t care about you. The  government’s responsibility is to those who participate.  ○ Drives voters away  ● Alienation  ○ Occurs after a person is engaged in government, but the government does not  respond.  ○ Many college students feel alienated  ○ Drives voters away  ● Civic duty  ○ A sense of serious duty towards the act involved  ○ “It’s amazing what people will do for a sticker”  ○ Could apply to voting, jury duty, military service, and more.  ○ Drives voters to the polls    Campaigns  ● Campaigns are conducted in many different ways  ○ Radio  ○ Television  ○ Door­to­door  ○ Mailers  ○ Phone calls  ○ Yard signs  ○ Accessories  ○ Opinion polls  ○ E­mails  ○ Social media  ● Candidate­centered campaigns (CCCs)  ○ Prominent in today’s culture  ○ Focuses on a candidate’s overall personal life and is not issue oriented  ○ Money is essential for campaigns  ■ Commercials are the primary method of campaigning, but they cost  millions of dollars  ○ Media is essential for campaigns  ■ Social media is a growing method of campaigning in order to get the  younger vote.  ○ Hired guns/consultants are essential for campaigns  ■ Consultants advise on fashion and debating among other things  ○ Ultimately, the goal is to win.   ○ Non­issue campaigning    ● Sound bytes  ○ Main reason candidates do not want to give an answer  ■ Due to sound bytes getting shorter and taken more out of context.    ● Campaign Reform  ○ Focused on combating negative ads   ○ Free media access    ● Campaign Finances  ○ “Money makes you hear better”  ○ Campaigns are incredibly expensive with costs in the millions  ○ PACs  ■ Political Action Committees  ■ Federal spending limit [10k per candidate per election cycle]  ■ No TX spending limit  ■ Must disclose who money is going to  ■ Displeasure with regulations led to the formation of Super PACs    ○ Super PACs  ■ No spending limit  ■ No disclosure laws  ■ The ‘loophole’    ○ No Limits TX  ■ Basically, no limits to money in campaigns at all    ○ Hard Money  ■ Goes to a candidate    ○ Soft Money  ■ Goes to a political party  ■ Government banned.  ■ Loophole: Section 527 committees  ● non­profit political organization  ● Can’t mention/endorse candidates  ● has to remain objective    ○ TX Ethics Committee  ■ Created because of Bo Pilgrim  ● “Pilgrim’s Pride”  ● Handed out 10k checks based on how senators voted on a worker’s  comp. law  ■ Exists to regulate campaigning and money flow  ■ Doesn’t function well    Race/Ethnicity/Gender  ● TX used to be a good ole boy system with white, old, men.   ● TX is now pluralistic with more women and minorities in the political system  ● Latinos are the fastest growing ethnic group in TX  ● Asians and Native Americans most under­represented   ● Two female governors  ○ First female governor  ■ Ma (Miriam Ferguson)  ■ Wife of the only impeached TX governor, Jim Ferguson  ■ 1920’s  ○ Second female governor  ■ Ann Richards  ■ 1990’s  ■ Voted into office when women’s voter turnout was at an all­time high.    ● Fewer females are in few positions of power in the state. Why?  ○ Politics is a men’s club  ○ Some women prefer traditional gender roles  ○ Women are always judged by their appearance  ○ Harder for females to overcome bias against women    ● Male/Female dichotomy  ○ Men are associated with strength  ○ Women are associated with weakness  ○ Men are associated with truth  ○ Women are associated with deception  ○ Men are associated with rational  ○ Women are associated with emotional  ○ Men are associated with mind, thinkers  ○ Women are associated with body  ○ Men are associated with public  ○ Women are associated with private    Voting  ● Unit Rule ­ winner takes all  ● Universal suffrage ­ everyone has the right to vote (with some exceptions)  ○ Registered  ○ 18+    ● 15th Amendment  ○ 1870  ○ Lets men regardless of color have the right to vote    ● Voting Rights Act of 1965  ○ Colored​  persons actually get the right to vote  ○ Hindrances used to keep colored persons from voting prior to 1965  ■ Literacy test  ■ Grandfather clause  ■ White­primary    ● 19th Amendment   ○ 1920  ○ Women’s right to vote    ● 24th Amendment  ○ Abolishes poll taxes  ○ Controversy over Voter ID cards    ● 26th Amendment  ○ 18+ right to vote.    ● Voting Rights Act (Amended) 1975  ○ Language minorities  ○ If a certain percentage of an area has a language minority, ballots must be printed  in that language.    ● Gerrymandering  ○ To impact the outcome of the election by skewing the population in a district    ● Motor Voter Law  ○ Allows for registration to vote when renewing driver’s license.    ● Socioeconomic status indicators  ○ Age  ○ Education  ○ Income   ○ As these go up, you’re more likely to vote  ○ Political environment  ○ Battleground State status  ○ Registration/Voter ID [State Laws]  ○ Civic attitude  ○ Criminal record  ○ 2008 Stats  ■ 55% national presidential  ■ 45% TX   ○ Star County (Low­Income, 24k a year)  ■ Voter turnout in 2008 was 35%  ○ Collin County (Higher­income, 81k a year)  ■ Voter turnout in 2008 was 66%    Elections  ● Precinct   ○ Early voting you can vote in any precinct in your county  ○ Voting day you ​ must ​ ote in your precinct    ● Voter ID  ○ Controversial  ○ Main reason for voter ID law is because of voter fraud    ● Primary  ○ Where the democratic and republican parties vote to choose their presidential  nominee.    ● Gubernatorial Elections  ○ Held in off­years  ○ Held mid­term    ● Stacking/Frontloading  ○ Primaries are being held earlier and earlier in order to determine the nominee  ○ Makes is harder and more expensive for candidates to campaign in multiple states  at the same time    ● Independents  ○ Sam Houston was the last independent governor of TX.    ● Special Elections  ○ Can be called in order to fill a vacancy  ○ Turnout is under 10% (usually 5­6%)  ○ Can have bond issues, constitutional amendments, etc.  ○ Held in odd years   


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.