POLS 2312-001 Chapter Five Notes [Full]
POLS 2312-001 Chapter Five Notes [Full] POLS 2312-001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by M.G on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 2312-001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kimberly Harper in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Chapter Five Lecture Notes Amendments ● 15th ○ 1870 ○ Allows men regardless of color to vote ● 19th ○ Women’s right to vote ● 24th ○ Poll taxes ● 26th ○ 18+ right to vote Civic Attitudes ● Apathy ○ A lack of interest ○ Young adults and teens are mostly apathetic towards voting ○ If you don’t care about the government, they don’t care about you. The government’s responsibility is to those who participate. ○ Drives voters away ● Alienation ○ Occurs after a person is engaged in government, but the government does not respond. ○ Many college students feel alienated ○ Drives voters away ● Civic duty ○ A sense of serious duty towards the act involved ○ “It’s amazing what people will do for a sticker” ○ Could apply to voting, jury duty, military service, and more. ○ Drives voters to the polls Campaigns ● Campaigns are conducted in many different ways ○ Radio ○ Television ○ Doortodoor ○ Mailers ○ Phone calls ○ Yard signs ○ Accessories ○ Opinion polls ○ Emails ○ Social media ● Candidatecentered campaigns (CCCs) ○ Prominent in today’s culture ○ Focuses on a candidate’s overall personal life and is not issue oriented ○ Money is essential for campaigns ■ Commercials are the primary method of campaigning, but they cost millions of dollars ○ Media is essential for campaigns ■ Social media is a growing method of campaigning in order to get the younger vote. ○ Hired guns/consultants are essential for campaigns ■ Consultants advise on fashion and debating among other things ○ Ultimately, the goal is to win. ○ Nonissue campaigning ● Sound bytes ○ Main reason candidates do not want to give an answer ■ Due to sound bytes getting shorter and taken more out of context. ● Campaign Reform ○ Focused on combating negative ads ○ Free media access ● Campaign Finances ○ “Money makes you hear better” ○ Campaigns are incredibly expensive with costs in the millions ○ PACs ■ Political Action Committees ■ Federal spending limit [10k per candidate per election cycle] ■ No TX spending limit ■ Must disclose who money is going to ■ Displeasure with regulations led to the formation of Super PACs ○ Super PACs ■ No spending limit ■ No disclosure laws ■ The ‘loophole’ ○ No Limits TX ■ Basically, no limits to money in campaigns at all ○ Hard Money ■ Goes to a candidate ○ Soft Money ■ Goes to a political party ■ Government banned. ■ Loophole: Section 527 committees ● nonprofit political organization ● Can’t mention/endorse candidates ● has to remain objective ○ TX Ethics Committee ■ Created because of Bo Pilgrim ● “Pilgrim’s Pride” ● Handed out 10k checks based on how senators voted on a worker’s comp. law ■ Exists to regulate campaigning and money flow ■ Doesn’t function well Race/Ethnicity/Gender ● TX used to be a good ole boy system with white, old, men. ● TX is now pluralistic with more women and minorities in the political system ● Latinos are the fastest growing ethnic group in TX ● Asians and Native Americans most underrepresented ● Two female governors ○ First female governor ■ Ma (Miriam Ferguson) ■ Wife of the only impeached TX governor, Jim Ferguson ■ 1920’s ○ Second female governor ■ Ann Richards ■ 1990’s ■ Voted into office when women’s voter turnout was at an alltime high. ● Fewer females are in few positions of power in the state. Why? ○ Politics is a men’s club ○ Some women prefer traditional gender roles ○ Women are always judged by their appearance ○ Harder for females to overcome bias against women ● Male/Female dichotomy ○ Men are associated with strength ○ Women are associated with weakness ○ Men are associated with truth ○ Women are associated with deception ○ Men are associated with rational ○ Women are associated with emotional ○ Men are associated with mind, thinkers ○ Women are associated with body ○ Men are associated with public ○ Women are associated with private Voting ● Unit Rule winner takes all ● Universal suffrage everyone has the right to vote (with some exceptions) ○ Registered ○ 18+ ● 15th Amendment ○ 1870 ○ Lets men regardless of color have the right to vote ● Voting Rights Act of 1965 ○ Colored persons actually get the right to vote ○ Hindrances used to keep colored persons from voting prior to 1965 ■ Literacy test ■ Grandfather clause ■ Whiteprimary ● 19th Amendment ○ 1920 ○ Women’s right to vote ● 24th Amendment ○ Abolishes poll taxes ○ Controversy over Voter ID cards ● 26th Amendment ○ 18+ right to vote. ● Voting Rights Act (Amended) 1975 ○ Language minorities ○ If a certain percentage of an area has a language minority, ballots must be printed in that language. ● Gerrymandering ○ To impact the outcome of the election by skewing the population in a district ● Motor Voter Law ○ Allows for registration to vote when renewing driver’s license. ● Socioeconomic status indicators ○ Age ○ Education ○ Income ○ As these go up, you’re more likely to vote ○ Political environment ○ Battleground State status ○ Registration/Voter ID [State Laws] ○ Civic attitude ○ Criminal record ○ 2008 Stats ■ 55% national presidential ■ 45% TX ○ Star County (LowIncome, 24k a year) ■ Voter turnout in 2008 was 35% ○ Collin County (Higherincome, 81k a year) ■ Voter turnout in 2008 was 66% Elections ● Precinct ○ Early voting you can vote in any precinct in your county ○ Voting day you must ote in your precinct ● Voter ID ○ Controversial ○ Main reason for voter ID law is because of voter fraud ● Primary ○ Where the democratic and republican parties vote to choose their presidential nominee. ● Gubernatorial Elections ○ Held in offyears ○ Held midterm ● Stacking/Frontloading ○ Primaries are being held earlier and earlier in order to determine the nominee ○ Makes is harder and more expensive for candidates to campaign in multiple states at the same time ● Independents ○ Sam Houston was the last independent governor of TX. ● Special Elections ○ Can be called in order to fill a vacancy ○ Turnout is under 10% (usually 56%) ○ Can have bond issues, constitutional amendments, etc. ○ Held in odd years
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