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Chapter 14 pt 2

by: Alexi Martin

Chapter 14 pt 2 CHEM 1200

Alexi Martin
GPA 3.58

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About this Document

this is the second part of chapter 14
Chemistry II
Dr. Alexander Ma
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexi Martin on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1200 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Dr. Alexander Ma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Chemistry II in Chemistry at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.


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Date Created: 02/26/16
Chapter 14 Part 2  Solution process  1. ΔHsolute>0 ΔHsolvent>0 ΔHmix<0  Heat of Hydration  ­ ionic compounds, water overcome, energy water and ions  ­ attractive forces, ions=lattice E  ΔHsolute= ­ΔHlatticeE  ­ attractive fprces in water, H bonds  ­ ion and water= ion dipole  ΔHhydration=heat released/mol gas=ΔHsolvent+ΔHmix  Ion Dipole  ­ions­hydrated, formation is exothermic  Heat of Solution, Ionic  ­ΔHsolution=ΔHsolute+ΔHsolvent+ΔHmix  ­ΔHsolution= ­ΔHlatticeE+ΔHsolvent+ΔHmix  ΔHsolution= ­ΔHlatticeE+ΔHhydration  ΔH solution and ΔHhydration  ­exothermic, lattice E sign ΔHsolution tells ΔHhydration  ­ΔHhydration<ΔHlattice, ΔHsolution endothermic  ­ΔHhydration>ΔHlattice, ΔH solution exothermic   example 1:​ 21500=­ΔH­583=​ ­604 kJ/mol=ΔHlattice  Solution Equilibrium  ­ no solute, dissolution  ­ dissolve solute, solute reform solute rate dissolution >> rate of deposition, solute  dissolves  ­ rate dissolution= deposition, ​aturated no more will dissolve  Solubility Limit  ­ dynamic equilibrium saturated  ­ no more will dissolve  ­ depends on pressure and temperature  ­less solute than saturated, or unsaturated  ­ more will dissolve at a higher temperature  ­ more solute than saturated, can become supersaturated  More dissolve  ­ if you heat the substance then cool it   ­ supersaturated substances are unstable and loose saturation when disturbed : example:  soda  Temperature dependence of solubility in water  ­raise temperature, solubility in 100g of water  ­solids solubility increases as temperature increases ΔHsolution is endothermic   ­solubility curves can be predicted: solubility vs. Temperature  ΔGsoln=ΔHsoln­TΔSsoln​  (+­+)  1  Purification by crystallization  ­remove impurities  ­dissolve solid in hot solvent until saturated   ­as solution cools, the impurities will be left in the solution, and the purity will crystallize out  examples: KNO3 106 g H2O 60 degrees celsius to 0 degrees celsius 139 g left in solution rest  precipitate  example 2: look at graph  50 g KNO3 100g H2O 34 degrees celsius: ​ aturated  50 g KNO3 100g H2O 50 degrees celsius: ​ nsaturated  50 g HNO3 50g H2O 50 degrees celsius:s​upersaturated  Temperature dependence solubility of gas in water  ­ gas solubility decreases, increase in solubility when gas is reacting: carbon dioxide  ­ all gases solubility decreases as temperature increases  ­ ΔHsolution exothermic, cannot overcome solute­solute interactions  ΔGmix=ΔHmix­TΔSmix  Pressure dependence solubility of gas in water  ­larger partical pressure gas with liquid, more soluble of gas in liquid  Henry’s Law  ­solubility gas is portional to partial pressure  Sgas=KhPgas  example 3:​0.1214= CO2 0.1214(3.14x10^­2)=3​.5 atm  example 4:7.6 torr=NH3 0.1L  58(0.01)=5.8x10^­1 M  M=5.8x10^­10 M/L (.10L)17.04g=​0.99g NH3  Concentrations  Molarity=mol of solute/Lsolution, molaity=mol solute/kgsolvent  Mol fraction  molsolute/total mol in solution=Xa  ­ ntotal=1  Mixtures  ­homogeneous solutions, suspensions­heterogenous do not separate  ­colloids­light will scatter  Soaps  ­colloid suspensions, missile particles  2 


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