One week of notes for Intro to Geo
One week of notes for Intro to Geo 100
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aubree Broyles on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at Fort Hays State University taught by Kenneth R Neuhauser in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geoscience at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Intro to Geology Notes GSCI 100 Section B Spring 2016 Section 2 Metamorphic Rocks 0 Meta shape Morhpic change Metamorphism a process the product is a variety of metamorphic rocks change of form amp composition of rock due to PT pressure temperature 0 New minerals and textures are formed 0 Metamorphic rock rock recrystallizes in solid state 0 Metamorphic Processamp 0 Temperature New minerals stable at new temps 0 Pressure either directed stress or uniform stress 0 Fluids aid the exchange of ions in the solid state Mineral sizes increase or decrease Minerals quotreoriented recrystallized new textures foliation lineation 0 Types of Metamorphisg o 1 Regional widespread TP increases at depth due to geothermal gradient tectonic forces 0 2 Contact intrusion of magma against colder country rocks thermal baked zone chill margin Where magma meets the rock around it the magma is cooled there and the rock is heated there 0 3 Dynamic due to folding and faulting Breaking and grinding along fault lines o 4 Impact Sudden impact meteorite impact Shocked quartz pseudotachylite Shatter cones best place to see them Sudbury Ontario Tektites amp microtektites when rock is heated and goes into the air it becomes like rain and then cools has a tip like obsidian Lightning nuclear tests Fulgarites caused by lightning impact Metamorphism 0 Grade intensity of o Prograde increase in temp o Retrograde decrease in temp 0 Parent Rock original rock Prolith Parent rock of marble limestone Parent rock of a quartz sandstone quartzite 0 Classi cation 0 E sled on texture Low gra composition 0 a e Low PT o Slate o Phyllite O SCh39F t High Grade 0 Gnelss High PF 0 Migmatite Stability of Minerals 0 Narrow PT range index mineral Meta Facies group of minerals o Glaucophane a blue amphibole high P low T Augen Gneiss eye shapes Boudins sausage shape Nonfoliated no banding Riecke s Principle As P increases solubility increases Stylolite black organic material that doesn t dissolve Mass Movement Slope stability factors 0 Main force gravity 0 Composition structure 0 Amount of water Triggering Mechanisms o Overload o Undercut o Vibration Earthquake 0 Add water Role of water 0 Adds weights Weathers physical amp chemical acts as lubricant and buoyant Waters bad 0 Fires and Deforestation increase erosion o Angles of slopes o Vegetation Mass Movement Types 0 Falls 0 Flows o Slides 0 Slumps Creep 1 for 0 Creep 1 most expensive and most frequent mass movement SoH ucUon o Artic form of creep areas where there is permafrost when there is a warm day it warms a little and expands presses upwards on the top layers of ground Subgdence o Hydrocompaction Vertical downward drop of the ground like the Corvette museum that coHapsed o Fluid removal Oil Solutioning Mining 0 Organic Shrinkage OO 1970 Wetlands Act was passed they drained wetlands and when organic material is exposed to oxygen the ground collapses now this is illegal to drain wetlands 0 Crawford sinkhole along l70 Since 2004 sinking 35quot year Fluid removal pressure removal grains collapse Anthropogenic human caused Liquefaction wet sands or clays turn to liquid when shaken o Mitigation 0 Ways to keep the ground from moving 0 Bolts nets terracing etc o Shotcrete a type of concrete that set up really quick and hard Streams Hydrology study of surface water 0 Water is the most important erosional agent 0 Evapotranspiration o Evaporation chemical o Transpiration biochemical o Drainage Basin largest in US is Mississippi River Drainage Basin 0 Headwaters where is all starts 0 Tributaries where branches begin 0 Trunk o Distributaries 0 River System Parts 0 Natural levee how formed 0 Alluvium all the material deposited by streams o Uplands oodplain valley bed 3oads 0 Transportation of the load by a system 0 Solution material dissolved in the water 0 Suspension lifting and carrying o Traction pushing rolling or sliding load along the bottom of the channel 0 Saltation bouncing Rivers Erode o 1 Hydraulic o 2 Scouring water goes round and round forms potholes o 3 Solution Stream Gradient vertical drop over horizontal distance 0 Niagara falls has a steep gradient 0 Terrace formation Neotectonics Stream Types 0 1 Braided Streams Sedimentgtthan amount stream can carry steeper gradient courser grains Wide channel narrow oodplain Features sand gravel bars Common in Glacial desert mountain regions 0 2 Meandering Stream Sediment in Equilibrium Gentle gradients negrains Wide ood plain skinny channel As a river ows it has major force on the OUTSIDE of the bend erosion occurs on the outside bends Deposition occurs on the inside of the bend also called the point bar Lateral migration erosion on outside deposition on inside Point bar creates l Fining upward package Oxbow lakes abandoned meander channels ll 2 L J f c E fmu Neck oflhc nancier huti i39m39u39 Ll an i u i39 hnidwmllg39 hazing cmdud qmt n1 mulL H k I WI quot 1 H l I LLIIiU1n1t39UA39ILUrIIr LIL I 39 39 l I 1 V D 39 Patterns 0 Most common dendritic o Rectangular o Trellis 0 Radial Discharge width x depth x velocity Volume passing given point over given time m3s Stream gauges USGS Flooding 0 Past 0 Flood frequency 0 Mitigation x things Urbanization causes Runoff How to reduce runoff o Retention ponds 27th st Hays o Contour plowing terracing 0 Strip planting mulching Flood Mitigation o Levees FHSU Big Creek Channelization build cutoffs Flood walls amp gates Establish ood zone laws Risk assessment GIS amp remote sensing Displaces problem downstream Ultimate Base level sea level Alluvial Fans Stuff deposited by rivers LandLocked deltas Delta Types 0 All deltas produce coarseningupward packages 0 CONTROLLING FACTORS o Fluvially Rivers Mississippi Fluvially dominated 0 Wave Rio Grande OOOOO 0 Tide Mekong Groundwater 3 categories of water 0 Meteoric Weather related moves their the water cycle quickly 0 Connate Trapped water usually under ground or under saltwater o Juven e Water vapor usually comes out with volcanos it has been underground for billions of years Hydrology study of groundwater Groundwater largest source of economically available fresh water for humans Biggest uses irrigation 40 thermoelectric 40 o The other 20 is split up between living engineering and recreation In ltration Rate Controls 0 Rate amp Type of precipitation o Porosity amp permeability o Slope of the land the atter the better soaks in faster 0 Evapotranspiration rate 0 of vegetation good keeps moisture there cottonwoods aren t good Groundwater terms 0 Zone of aeration Mostly air 0 Zone of saturation Mostly water Porosity P total pore space capacity to store Permeability p uid speed through pore space capacity to transmit ldeal zone Gravel medhigh P high p Sand med P medium p Clay high P low p Aquifer material with high P p Aquitard material retards ow medium Pp Aquiclude material excludes ow low Pp Water Quality 0 Standards state and federal Na Ca Cl S04 HCO3 Fe Good Pb Se Cr As Hg Bad E coli bad Giardia lamblia bad 0 Cryptosporidium bad Best for cleaning plumes sand 0 Especially sewage and bacteria Gasoline is an LNAPL it oats on top of the water Perc perchloroethylene DNAL perc 66000 anthropogenic chemicals in the world 0 70 NOT tested for toxicity 2 completely evaluated 0 Easy tests urine sweat saliva Where can we get more water 0000 Rivers lakes swamps Groundwater drill more wells Recycling Union lce machine waste water used to water the grass Desalination 20millionunit Icebergs future Remote Sensing Hays Water sources 0 Smoky hill river south of hays 60 alluvium 0 Big Creek 40 o Dakota Sandstone 5 max very salty 0 Air stripper 0 Arkansas River 0 o o O O O O O O Smoky Hill River south of Russell Lake Wilson or Kanapolis Cedar Bluff Resevoir 0 Kansas Water Transfer Act 0 Basic Water Doctrines o Riparia landowner has 1st rights state controls most more quality problems than quantity in Eastern US 0 Prior Appropriation holder need not be riparian may have no rights it s the 1st person to USE or DIVERT has primary right west 0 Dowsing rhabdomacy water witching Saltwater intrusion usually coastal not common in Kansas 0 Geothermal
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