HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 22-26, 2016
HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 22-26, 2016 HIST 1020
Popular in World History II
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Ingros on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Donna Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
Reviews for HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 22-26, 2016
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/26/16
February 2226, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan COURSE OF WORLD WAR I War started in August of 1914. Both sides went into this war thinking it would only last six weeks, but it actually lasted four years. o Everyone knew they were going to go to war; the assassination of Franz Ferdinand was just the straw that broke the camel’s back. Schlieffen Plan: Germany’s idea to invade France from the north by crossing through Belgium (which would violate international law because Belgium was a neutral state), they wanted to move in and envelope Paris (if you have Paris, you have France) o Germany did not want to be fighting a war on two fronts with France and Russia. They wanted to use this plan so they could knock France out fast and then turn to take down Russia. They did send Austrians and Hungarians to Russia to hold them down until the plan was executed. The plan did not workout that way. First Battle of the Marne (1914) – the Germans came through Belgium (the Belgians did fight back and the British came to help), but they met the French at the Marne River, the French dug trenches from Northern France to Switzerland where they held the line against the Germans (trenchwarfare), the war stayed right where the trenches were dug o TrenchWarfare – the offense in trenchwarfare was to rush the opponent’s trenches (NoMan’sLand: area between opponent trenches), they were rushing with rifles and bayonets but defending themselves with machine guns (both sides had machine guns) Trenches were dug 78 feet deep. Life in the trenches is so bad. They would rotate you to the front for about seven days then let you rest for about three days. There was much mud in the trenches. Soldiers were often up to their arms in mud, which was filled with rodents and waste. It became a War of Attrition, which means they just tried to ware the other side down. NoMan’sLand was reinforced with barbed wire. You had to either go over or crawl under the wire so many people were killed. Battle of Verdun (1916) – some 200,000 shells were dropped here and there were 700,000 deaths Battle at the Somme River – British lost 60,000 men in one day The issue became how to break the stalemate. They brought new allies in. The Germans brought in the Ottomans, and the French and British brought in the Americans. Americans wanted to stay out of the conflict; even the President February 2226, 2016 (Woodrow Wilson) didn’t want to get involved. The problem that brought the Americans in was submarine warfare. o Lusitania – British ship that the Germans sunk (there were hundreds of Americans on this ship), this angered the Americans and later led them to get involved Americans forced the Germans to stop submarine warfare, and they did for a while, but when the Germans resumed the Americans got involved (April of 1917). o American involvement helped break the stalemate. The nations also tried to create diversions. Battle of Gallipoli – wanted to create another front, this was an amphibious landing, there were several casualties at this battle T.E. Lawrence – was an Englishman who had lived for ages in the Middle East, knew much about Muslim, they used him to stir up Arab nationalism against the Ottoman Empire There were many major technological developments – tanks (attempt to be able to cross NoMan’sLand), planes (use is limited but engaged in dogfights and were able to drop a few bombs), gas (chemical warfare, there were many deaths from the use of gas, they used tear gas which temporarily had an effect on the opponent, they used chlorine gas which killed people by suffocating them, the most hideous was mustard gas which caused people to blister and kill you inside out) Internal revolution led to the withdrawal of Russia from the war. The Bolsheviks took over and pulled Russia from the war. The French, British, and Americans came out the victors. They were mad and they want retribution. Treaty of Versailles: there were a number of results from this meeting after the war o “War Guilt” Clause – "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies." o Territorial Provisions – the Germans had to give AlsaceLorraine back to France, they also lost their colonial territories and lost territory in the East which was given back to Poland, the Ottoman Empire is broken up (Turkey is left and the new state Yugoslavia is created) Effects of the war – the war effected all people in all the nations involved February 2226, 2016 o Loss of life – Germany (2 – 2.5 million), Russia (1.75 million) France (1.5 million), Britain (1 million), Italy (500 thousand), Unites States (100 thousand), and about 20 million total were wounded o Colonials – the colonies fought on behalf of their mother nations o Women – had to keep the home front working, took jobs in factories, led to women’s movements o Psychological impact – people don’t think the same, there was a lost generation o Fascism – people had to rework their governments to try and recover from the war, which led to the creation of Fascism RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Russian Revolution started by the middle class but becomes a war of the proletariat, it was led by professional revolutionaries, on the eve of Revolution: o Economic and Social Change – Russia was very late in industrializing, but it happened very suddenly and very rapidly, the middle class was becoming bigger and more prosperous thanks to industrialization (middle class now wants political power that it has not had because Russia was a monarchy ruled by a czar [Nicolas and Alexandra Romanov at the time]), the czar and aristocracy have all the power, government tried to print more money to help the economy but it just caused inflation Duma – Russia’s form of parliament, doesn’t always have good relations with the czar (Nicolas considered getting rid of it) o Peasants – 80% of the population were still peasants, serfdom was only emancipated in 1861, peasants are very frustrated and want their own land Stolypin – carries out some land reforms in which some peasants got their own small land holdings for private use, the rest were forced to work for the Mir (a collective farm that belonged to the village and was owned by the village), it was better than serving for the aristocracy o World War I – Russia was deeply involved in WWI, Russia was the Eastern Front, they fought valiantly and committed 15 million troops to this cause (lost half of them to war or desertion), Russia is starving after the war, the war disrupted railroads so food couldn’t be transported, it’s so bad that in 1915 Czar Nicolas went to the front to try and save the war effort, the government looks so bad because they are losing the war and people are starving Rasputin – con artist, disreputable, convinced Alexandra Romanov that he can cure her son (the heir to the throne) of hemophilia, the hemophilia stops for a bit and Alexandra allows Rasputin to gain February 2226, 2016 political power, he shares his power with his corrupt/incompetent friends The Two Revolutions – the revolution took place in two phases o The First Revolution – takes place in March of 1917 (it is the middle class revolution) in St. Petersburg (Petrograd), it was started by women for the most part because there wasn’t enough food (food riot), by the evening of March 8 there were over 2 million people rioting, Nicolas’ response was to send in troops and he abolishes the Duma, the troops are sympathetic to the poor people rioting so they take a vote to not fire on the crowd (disobey orders), they actually joined the other side which is rapidly becoming a revolution, three days later the Czar abdicated the throne, the Duma became the new provisional (temporary) government, the Duma had to address all the social problems and address the war, they stay in the war and it ends up going very badly Kerensky – the man the Duma chose to lead the new government, he was sort of a social reformer and was pretty radical, chose to be the prime minister Soviets – councils of workers, formed in all the major towns and cities in Russia, in St. Petersburg there will be a central soviet, this is not the provisional government, it is a Shadow Government, the proletariat organized this, there are Marxist inspired political parties in Russia who helped to form this soviets Bolsheviks – worked with proletariat and worked to overthrow the provisional government, would lead to the Bolshevik Revolution Lenin – Marxist, very bright, spent some time in jail for criticizing the czar, was exiled from Russia, but after all this happened he returned to Russia because he thought it was time to bring about the Marxist Revolution (the Germans helped him back into Russia to end WWI), began to campaign in Russia for another revolution, puts his own spin on Marx (Marx said the proletariat would rise on its own and you couldn’t force it to happen, it had to be an fully industrialized nation for revolution to take place), but Lenin said the time was now and he said you got to fast forward things by using the intellectuals to indoctrinate people The Bolsheviks campaigned with the help of Trotsky and Stalin to try and convince soviets to join their side, their slogan was: “Peace, Land, and Bread” (pull Russia out of the land, give people their own land, and make sure no one was starving in Russia) February 2226, 2016 o The Second Revolution – Bolshevik Revolution gained control of St. Petersburg which allowed them to control all the soviets, this will lead to a civil war in Russia (the whites [counterrevolutionaries] vs. the reds [Bolsheviks]), this civil war even got foreign support from Britain, the U.S., and France because they were all afraid of Bolshevik takeover The war is over with Red (Bolshevik) victory in 1922, even before the war was over they started creating a new form of economy (War Communism), shortly before the end of the war Russia was in such an economic crisis that Lenin embarks on something dramatic: o New Economic Policy (NEP) – created by Lenin, reverted to capitalism to try and jump start Russia’s economy, gave land to peasants which allowed them to farm their own land and sell their goods, took industries and gave them to private hands, but the government kept control of the heavy industry, tried to inspire productivity, amazingly it worked, Stalin had some issues with this o Russian Constitution – does not make one reference to the Bolshevik/Communist party, Russia is becoming a totalitarian state (one party state that controls everything), it controls the Politburo (subset of central committee where ideas were shared) th Propaganda became an art form in the 20 century, and everyone government used it in some way. Propaganda tends not to be very subtle. SOVIET UNION UNDER STALIN Lenin had two successors: Stalin and Trotsky o Trotsky – subscribed to the theory of “Permanent Revolution” (the Revolution needs to be made international right away for Socialism/Marxism to work) o Stalin – you have to build socialism at home first, make it work in Russia before you expand the revolution Stalin actually studied to become a priest, but then he became linked up with Marxist revolutions and spent time in prison, he edited the Bolshevik party newspaper for awhile, by the time of the revolution he was one of the people in charge of the revolution (alongside Lenin) o Stalin beats out Trotsky to become the new leader of the Soviet Union Politburo – policy is formulated here, it is a subgroup of the central committee o Stalin used his power to put his friends in power, he came out on top and Trotsky lived in Mexico until 1940 when Stalin’s people found him and killed him Totalitarian State – ruled by a dictator and one political party, motivated by the idea that the state is always fighting an enemy (Stalin continued to set this up) February 2226, 2016 Five Year Plan – 1928, policies under Stalin o End of the NEP – Stalin despised this, he felt it created a class of little capitalists (Kulaks: landowning, wealthier peasants), which he hated, he wanted to compete internationally as a super power so he launched the Five Year Plan o Goal – the goal was to transform Russia into a international, industrial power, idea was that major improvement in farming would help with the industrialization Triple the output of heavy industry Double the output of lighter, smaller industry Increase by 50% agricultural productivity (to feed and support) o Collectivization – the peasants of Russia always wanted their own land, this required the peasants to turn their land, livestock, and any farming tools they had into the government, but the peasants resisted and destroyed their equipment and livestock instead of handing it over, this set Russia back greatly (major famine hit), Stalin ordered party workers to go out and get rid of the Kulaks o Factories – they met the objectives Stalin set forth, he did it on the back of the proletariat, Stakhanov (met 16 times over his objective in the factory) Results – Russia became the 3 industrial nation in the world Life in Russia under Stalin: o It was a regime that ran on terrorism, Stalin purged millions of people for political reasons (one of the worst regimes in history), went after anyone who showed capitalist favor, there were show trials where people who were suspected of capitalist tendency were put on fake trials where they would be sentenced to execution, a lot of people were shipped off to the Gulags in Siberia (death camps) Casualties: 20 million perished between 19301941, 10 million (collectivization), 89 million (arrested), 1 million (executed), 30,00040,000 (officers) o There was a great food shortage during this time, there were huge shortages in housing and other necessities, Russia became the world’s first socialist country o There was huge censorship of writings, media, and more, people were forced to think how the government thought, propaganda was widespread Lysenko – did experiments with biochemistry with wheat plants to prove Marxism, the government loved him because what he said about organisms ran parallel to what the government was teaching
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'