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Week 7 Notes

by: Alexandria Davis

Week 7 Notes Nutrition 1000

Alexandria Davis
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Week 7 notes in detail
Contemporary Nutrition
Nancy Gordon Harris
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandria Davis on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Nancy Gordon Harris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 02/26/16
Contemporary Nutrition Notes Week: 2/22-2/26 Monday 2-22-16 : Test Day (no new notes) Wednesday 2-24-16 : Vitamins (view PowerPoint for additional information) Vitamins A vitamin is an essential, non-caloric, organic nutrient needed in small quantities in the diet There are two types: 1. Water Soluble 2. Fat soluble Water Soluble Vitamins: Characteristics include:  They dissolve in H2O  They are easily absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted in urine  Limited storage capacity in the body  You need to replenish them in the diet more often  Very rarely reach toxic levels  Washing and cooking can leach from foods Vitamin B  Thiamin (Vitamin B1)  Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)  Niacin (Vitamin B3)  Folate (Folic acid)  Vitamin B12  Vitamin B6  Biotin  Pantothenic acid Functions of B vitamin:  The act as coenzymes. o A coenzyme is a small molecule works with an enzyme and activates it to do its job  Helps the body metabolize carbohydrates, lipids and proteins to release energy  Also very vital in the reproduction of cells Deficiency of B vitamins They are very rare. A person that is deficient in one is more than likely to be deficient in other vitamins. The excessive use of supplements can be dangerous and harmful for the body. Thiamin deficiency: Beriberi (Vitamin B1) o Wet Beriberi symptoms: rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath and edema o Dry Beriberi: difficulty walking, loss of feeling in hands and feet, confusion and poor coordination Niacin deficiency: Pellagra (Vitamin B3) o Symptoms: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and ultimately death follows Folate Deficiency (Folic acid) o Neural tube defects: this causes an irregular development in the brain and spinal cord, comes from folate condition before and during the pregnancy Vitamin B12 deficiency: Pernicious Anemia o Symptoms: fatigue, shortness of breath, dizziness, head pains, pale and or yellow skin, chest pain, tingling and numbness in the hands and feet Vitamin C Functions of Vitamin C:  Form scar tissue that helps with healing wounds and fractures  Forms fibrous protein which is the basis for all connective tissue such as bones, teeth, skin and tendons  Has a part in energy metabolism  Functions as an antioxidant to support immune system  It enhances the absorption of iron  Aids in protecting and recycling vitamin E DRI for Vitamin C (important to know) (Adult) Men: 90 mg Women: 75 mg However if you are a smoker, the need for vitamin C increases Men: 125 mg Women: 110 mg The body’s storage pool of vitamin C because saturated at intakes of 100 mg in a day Deficiency of Vitamin C: Scurvy Symptoms include:  Breakdown of collagen  Anemia  Loss of appetite  Poor growth  Weakness  Bleeding in the gums and skin  Loose teeth  Swollen ankles and wrists False Claim!!  The theory that vitamin C supplements prevent and or cure colds is in fact not well supported by research Be aware: An excess of Vitamin C is more than likely the result of an over usage of supplements Tolerable Upper Limit (TUL) is 2000 mg Friday 2-26-16: Vitamins continued… Vitamins continued 2. Fat soluble Fat Soluble vitamins include:  Vitamin A  Vitamin D  Vitamin E  Vitamin K Characteristics include:  Dissolve in lipids  Absorbed into the lymph and travel into the blood in link with protein carriers  They require bile for absorption  Stored in liver and fatty tissue  They can be toxic in excess, most especially vitamin A and D Vitamin A It was the first fat soluble vitamin to be recognized Chemical structure:  Retinol: stored in the liver  Retinal: active form  Retinoic acid: active form Precursor or Provitamin Similar chemical compounds that can be transformed into active vitamins once they are within the body. It also affects food consumption and recommendations for intake. Beta-Carotene- precursor of vitamin A  Can be found in food such as: dark green, yellow, orange and red fruits and vegetables Functions of Vitamin A:  Vision  Maintenance of epithelial tissue  Antioxidant which supports the immune system  Gene expression  Important for normal cell growth and reproduction  Assists in bone growth and health Recommendations for intake of vitamin A  Retinol activity equivalents (RAE) equals: o 1 microgram retinal o 12 micrograms beta carotene o 24 micrograms other carotenoids International unit (IU)- A measure of fat soluble vitamin activity sometimes used on food tables and supplement labels The need for Vitamin A can be met by the diet and the use of dietary supplements is unneeded. Deficiency of Vitamin A  Night blindness  Keratinization  Xerosis (corneal drying)  Xerophthalmia (permanent blindness)  Impaired bone growth  Easily decayed teeth  Impaired immunity  Skin health Toxicity of Vitamin A Mainly caused by over usage of supplements Tolerable Upper Limit (TUL) is 3000 micrograms People at risk for this include:  Pregnant women: over use and excess of supplements taken during pregnancy  Children: chewable vitamins mistaken for candy  Adolescents: take large doses to help rid of acne Vitamin D Called ‘The Sunshine Vitamin’ (know this for test) The body is capable to synthesize its need for vitamin D with acceptable exposure to sunshine It is not an essential nutrient Functions of Vitamin D  Acts as a hormone  Stimulates the maturation of cells  Important for the maintenance of bone formation and for proper functioning of the muscles, nerves and glandular systems  Maintain calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood DRI for vitamin D 5-15 micrograms per day Tolerable Upper Limit (TUL): 50 micrograms per day Factors that may affect sun exposure: 1. Air pollution (particles in air block light) 2. City living (tall buildings block sunlight) 3. Clothing (heavy clothing blocks sunlight) 4. Geography (some locations receive more sunlight than others) 5. Homebound (indoor living and not going outside) Deficiency of Vitamin D Children Adults Called Rickets Called Osteomalacia Softening of bones Misshaped bones Chest bowed outward Bent spine Knock knees Bowed legs Abnormal growth Pain and fracture Toxicity of Vitamin D THIS IS THE MOST POTENTIALLY TOXIC OF ALL THE VITAMINS It is most likely caused by the abuse of supplements Symptoms include:  Appetite loss  Nausea and vomiting  Increased thirst and urination  Depression Calcium can be deposited in soft tissues such as the heart, lungs and kidneys The American Cancer Society (ACS) has guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention Achieve and maintain a healthy weight throughout life  Be as lean as possible and avoid being underweight  Avoid gaining weight  Limit intake of high-calorie food and beverages Adopt a physically active lifestyle  Adults: engage in 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minute of vigorous intensity activity each week and spread it out  Children: engage in at least one hour of with moderate or vigorous activity at least three days a week  Restrict sedentary behaviors  Do some kind of physical activity because something is better than nothing Consume a healthy diet, with an emphasis on plant foods  Choose foods and drinks that with help you maintain and achieve a healthy weight  Limit processed food and red meat consumption  Eat at least two and half cups of fruits and veggies a day  Choose whole grains instead of refine grains If you must drink alcoholic beverages limit yourself Men: no more than two drinks a day Women: no more than one drink a day


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