PSYC1000: 24-26 Feb Notes
PSYC1000: 24-26 Feb Notes PSYC 1010
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayden McKenzie on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
CH 7 When is punishment effective? Punishment works best when it approximates the way we naturally encounter immediate consequences Less well when the only consequence we encounter is a distant, delayed, possible threat Severity of punishments is not as helpful as making immediate and certain punishments Problems with Physical Punishment Punished behavior may restart when punishment is over Children may learn to discriminate among situations (avoiding those only where a punishment would occur instead of learning behavior Punishment can teach fear Physical punishment models aggression as a method of dealing with problems Problem Punishing focuses on what NOT to do It doesn’t guide people to a desired behavior if undesirable behaviors stop, another problem behavior may emerge that serves the same purpose Lesson – to teach desired behavior, reinforce what is right more often than punishing what is wrong Applications of Operant Conditioning Parents and School - Rewarding small improvements toward desired behaviors is more effective than expecting complete success and punishing problem behaviors Sports – athletes improve most In the shaping approach, reinforced for performance that comes close to target goal Work – some companies pay as a result of performance not seniority, targeting specific behaviors to reinforce Self-improvement – reward yourself for steps you take toward your goals 1. state a realistic goal that can be measured 2. decide how/when/where you will achieve that goal 3. monitor how often you engage in that desired behavior 4. reinforce the desired behavior 5. gradually reduce rewards Role of Biology in Conditioning Biology constraints – one animal cannot be trained for the same behavior as another animal An animal’s capacity of conditioning is restrained by biology Classical conditioning – John Garcia found it was easier to learn associations if it makes sense for survival, can still be placed far apart, males in one study were more attracted to a woman in a picture with a red border (red = ovulation) Cognitive process Classical conditioning – when the dog salivates at the bell it may be due to cognition, knowing that our reactions are caused by conditioning gives us the option of mentally breaking the association Operant conditioning – in fixed interval reinforcement animals do more target behaviors around the time that a reward is more likely (as if expecting it), humans can respond to delayed reinforces such as a paycheck, setting goals for the self Learning, Rewards, and Motivation Intrinsic motivation – desire to perform a behavior for its own sake Extrinsic motivation – doing a behavior for rewards Intrinsic motivation can sometimes be reduced by external rewards Few rewards as possible and decrease over time Learning and Behavior Observational learning – watching what happens when other people do a behavior and learning from their experience Behavior of others serves as a model Vicarious conditioning Albert Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment Kids saw adults punching an inflated doll while narrating their aggressive behaviors Kids were then put in a toy-deprived situation and acted out the same behaviors they had seen Mirroring in the Brain Mirror neurons – when watching others doing or feeling something, mirror neurons fire in patterns that would fire if we were doing the action or having the feeling ourselves Our brain simulates and vicariously experiences what we observe We can grasp others’ stare of mind From mirroring to imitation Overimitate – from 18 months of age, routinely copy adult behaviors that have no function and no award Reflects an evolutionary adaptation that is essential to the transmission of human culture Children with autism – less likely to cognitively mirror and less likely to follow someone’s gaze Prosocial effects of observational learning Prosocial behavior – actions which benefit others Antisocial effects of observational learning Antisocial behavior – actions that are harmful to individuals and society Children who witness violence in their homes but are not physically harmed might hate violence but still may be more violent than the average child Under stress we do what has been modeled for us Media models of violence Viewing media violence leads to increased aggression and diminishes prosocial behavior Violence viewing effect explained by: imitation (mirror neurons, modeling) and desensitization toward others’ pain Watching cruelty fosters indifference CH 8: MEMORY Why do we need to have memory? To retain useful skills, knowledge, and expertise To recognize familiar people and places To build our capacity to use language To enjoy, share, and sustain culture To build a sense of self that endures: beliefs, values, understandings To go beyond conditioning in learning by experience Studying memory Memory – persistence of learning over time, through the storage and retrieval of information and skills Three behaviors show that memory is functioning: recall, recognition, relearning How does memory work? Encoding – getting information into your brain Storage – keeping the information in your brain Retrieval – reactivating and recalling the information Exception to computer analogy: our memories less literal and more fragile, our brains process many things simultaneously (some things unconsciously) by parallel processing Atkinson-Shiffrin Model (1968) Stimuli are recorded by our senses and held briefly in sensory memory Some of this information is processed into short-term memory Information then moves into long-term memory Modifying the model: short-term memory is now called working memory, automatic processing (some information seems to go straight from sensory experience into long-term memory) Working memory It holds information not just to rehearse it but to process it (ex: hearing a word problem in math and doing it in your head) Makes sense of new input and links it with long-term memories Dual Track Processing Explicit/ “declarative” memories – facts and experiences that we consciously know and recall, our minds acquire this information through conscious effortful processing (studying, rehearsing, thinking, processing) Implicit memories – processed automatically, skips conscious encoding track and goes directly into storage Automatic processing Procedural memory – automatic skills and well-practiced knowledge such as word meanings Conditioned associations – information about space, time, and frequency Encoding Without active processing, short term memories disappear Effortful processing strategy – a way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve Effortful processing – also known as studying Examples: chunking (grouping), mnemonics (images, maps, peg-words), hierarchies/categories, rehearsal, semantic processing, making information personally meaningful Rehearsal and Distributive Practice Massed practice – cramming information all at once Spacing effect – you will develop better retention and recall if you use the same amount of study time spread over many short sessions Testing effect – best way to study Deep/semantic processing We are most likely to retain information if we deeply process even a simple word list by focusing on the semantics (meaning) of the words “shallow” unsuccessful processing – memorizing the appearance or sound of the words Processing Strategy: Making Information Personally Meaningful Memorizing meaningful material takes less effort than memorizing nonsense syllables Self-reference effect – relating material to ourselves, aids encoding and retention Memory Storage Memories are NOT in isolated files but in overlapping neural networks distributed throughout the brain Brain’s long term memory storage does not get full, gets more elaborately rewired and interconnected Explicit Memory Processing Frontal lobes – retrieval and use of explicit memories Hippocampus – encoding and storage of explicit memories, held for a couple days before consolidating and moving to the cortex (this process occurs during sleep) A good night’s sleep improves recall of previous day’s events Implicit Memory Processing Cerebellum – forms and stores implicit memories created by classical conditioning (we can store a phobic response even if we do not remember how we acquired the fear) Basal ganglia – controls movement, forms and stores procedural memory and motor skills Infantile Amnesia Implicit memory from infancy can be retained Explicit memories, our recall for episodes, only goes back to age 3 for most people Explanation: Encoding (memories not stored well because hippocampus is not fully developed at this time), Forgetting/Retrieval (the adult mind thinks in a more linear verbal narrative and has trouble accessing preverbal memories as declarative memories) Emotions, Stress Hormones, the Amygdala, and Memory Strong emotions especially stress can strengthen memory formation 1. Emotions can trigger a rise in stress hormones 2. These hormones trigger activity in the amygdala 3. Amygdala increases memory-forming activity and engages the front lobes and basal ganglia to tag memory as important Memories are stored with more sensory and emotional details that can trigger rapid, unintended recall Synaptic Changes Synapses – neurotransmitters than are released from neurons when people or sea slugs form memories Long term potentiation – signals are sent across the synapse more efficiently after repetition Synaptic changes – reduction in the prompting needed to send a signal and an increase in the number of receptor sites Memory Retrieval Memory is stored as a web of associations: conceptual, contextual, emotional Power of Priming Priming – triggers a thread of associations and can affect us unconsciously Study: people primed with money related words were less likely to help another person, priming with an image of Santa Claus led kids to share more candy, people primed with a missing child poster misinterpreted adult-child interactions as kidnapping Context-Dependent Memory Encoding specificity principle – we retrieve a memory more easily when in the same context as when we formed the memory State-dependent memory Mood congruent memory - memories can also be tied to the emotional state we were in when we formed the memory Brain and Two Track Mind: Case of Henry Molaison Removal of his hippocampus to stop seizures He could learn new skills but could not recall the lessons Encoding failure Failure to create a memory link Storage Decay Material encoded into long term memory will decay if it the memory is never used, recalled, and restored Decay is like LTP in reverse (or like pruning) Retrieval Failure: Tip of the Tongue Sometimes, the memory itself does not decay The association and links decay Forgetting Forgetting can occur at any memory stage Why is our memory full of errors? Memory gets constructed (imagined, selected, changed, and rebuilt) Memories can be continuously revised (reconsolidation) Even repeatedly imagining nonexistent memories can create false memories
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