HIST 100 Late Roman Republic - The Triumvirate
HIST 100 Late Roman Republic - The Triumvirate 70142 - HIST 100 - 013
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Williams on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 70142 - HIST 100 - 013 at George Mason University taught by Susan E Schulze in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization in History at George Mason University.
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Late Roman Republic – First Triumvirate 60 – 53BC Last stages in transformation from Republic to monarchy. The strengthened executive > The Civil Wars of Triumvirates With the power of the executive increasing, the former consuls start pushing on the senate. These three men, with really big armies, created an illegal triumvirate (a three party leadership) and they push to control voting blocks with their armies and influence Marcus Licinius Crassus – Became popular defeating Spartacus during the Third Servile (Servant) War. The first two servile wars were defeated quickly. But Spartacus actually created a huge army of gladiators to fight, but he just wanted to leave Rome. His army convinced him to stay and fight for freedom, then Crassus was elected as consul and he defeated Spartacus. The people were terrified of Spartacus and were afraid he was going to destroy Rome. So Crassus became very popular after his victory. Pompeius Magnus – Elected as consul, during this time the house of Mithridates (Black Sea people that the Romans left to be) were rebelling in the Pontus (Turkey). This is where Rome gets their grain, so they elected Pompeius and he defeated the Mithridatic house and moved to create complete Roman control. But one day Pompeius gets a message from the Pharisee in a group in Judia, Palestina, and Syria reside (Eastern Med.). Pompeius defeats the Pharisee and secures this place as a huge trade hub between their empire and Asia. o Pompeius has a huge amount of power now, which intimidates Crassus who then looks for an ally so he looked into the mid to lower levels of the military. He chose Julius Caesar. And he had no idea what kind of door he was opening with choosing Caesar. Pompeius is a political whore, he just wanted was a triumph (a parade, to celebrate a conqueror as he brings back all the spoils of war, the prisoners of war, the defeated leaders of the culture, the defeated generals. Last comes the conqueror in a chariot with a robe of purple and a laurel of gold. This is a legal event that confirms the rights of the conqueror to rule the land won). So he will switch between being Populare and Optimate. So instead of fighting Crassus and Caesar, he joins them as a Populare in creating tax farming contracts with them. o These contracts are given to certain people in districts to collect taxes. The consul will order the people to get a certain amount of money from the people. The tax collectors will pick up that much money from their people and then some to line their own pockets. Julius Caesar – Comes into the picture through Crassus, and is really a nobody when Pompeius returns. But Caesar wanted a commission to conquer the Gaul. 5850BC Gallic Wars commentarii de Bello Gallico – Letters from the battle (written by Caesar to tell people everything he had won, and he calls himself the Alexander of the West). o In 58BC Caesar is given consulship and goes to conquer Gaul (France/Spain). This was a major trade route between the mainland of Europe and Britain, and Caesar wants Gaul to control the bountiful trade from Britain (metals, furs, textiles). They take over the rivers that connect to the Northern Ocean and then the rivers that then reach the Med. Sea. Civil War 4945BC – Crassus tries to get power again by faking a war with a group in the territories he conquered (the Mithrodatic House Pompeius suppressed ten years prior). But instead of winning he gets killed. 44 BC Julius Caesar’s daughter, Julia, dies in childbirth so his last connection to Pompeius ends there. The first triumvirate falls here. Caesar asks for a renewal of his consulship, Pompeius tells the senate to say no. Caesar asks again and gets the same response. Caesar packs up his legion and stops at the Rubicon River, the boundary. He asks again, is rejected. Then he crosses the Rubicon and that was the point of no return, and marches on Rome. o Pompeius thought he had the support of his army and the Senate. But they all leave him high and dry except for a few members of his military. o Pompeius flees to Egypt, a place with a powerful monarch named Ptolemy XIII (his sister is Cleopatra) where there is a powerful military as well. o But Ptolemy doesn’t have the power to fight Caesar so Ptolemy agrees to take in Pompeius, meets him on the beach, and chops his head off and send it to Caesar. o But Caesar was looking for a reason to take over Egypt so he takes the killing of Pompeius as a personal insult so he stormed Egypt. o Ptolemy and Cleopatra are in a civil war because Cleopatra wants to rule. Caesar takes Cleopatra’s side and kills Ptolemy, putting Cleopatra in charge. That’s when Caesar and Cleopatra go on the journey down the Nile with Caesar’s army as a threat to make sure nobody questions her. Egypt is now a partnered state with Rome. Caesar asks for a dictatorship of Rome, and they grant it. He is dictator for one year, then he asks for five years, which is illegal but it’s granted. Then he asks for ten years. And finally he requests to be dictator for life, which is a monarchy. Many people are against it but Caesar is so popular that nobody would mind him ruling. o Rome’s calendar is a lunar calendar. Also, Romans believed that when you die you live in the afterlife for as long as people remember or read your name. So Caesar takes an entire month out of the year and names it after his family, Julia, which becomes July, so his family will live eternally. o Then during his rule, Caesar starts pushing to make himself a deity. Roman people had a beef with him about it because he was assuming his own deification before he dies. Normally the people deify a famous person after they die. This was the last straw. o On the 15 of March, Brutus and Longinus (senators) led a group of senators and assassinate him. All hell breaks loose when Caesar is killed. All of the exconsuls and generals push to rule. One of the last acts of the Senate was to assign a new Triumvirate of the strongest of men, they chose Marc Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian. The first act of these three men was to kill all of the people who killed Caesar to get rid of the traitors. Potter and Yakobson Late Roman Republic – Second Triumvirate 4333BC These three men are assigned to bring Rome back together after Caesar’s assassination. Rome is split into three, Marc Antony – Gets the lion’s share: Egypt, The Black Sea, most of the East. Marc Antony works to control Cleopatra’s child (who was probably the child of her and Caesar so the child has the blood of Rah and the deity Caesar) Antony is the epitome of a male slut at the time, he’ll sleep with anything with a heartbeat Lepidus – Gets the western coastline of Africa, not much there. Lepidus has a wife that is quite outspoken, and she insults Antony for being such a slut and sleeping around. Octavian Gets the western part of the empire of Europe. Octavian took insult to Lepidus’s wife defaming Antony and he suggests to banish Lepidus and his wife. Which he does, then it is a battle between Octavian and Antony. The last Civil War is between Antony and Octavian. Octavian finds Antony’s will and he reads it to the Senate and spins it to sound like Antony is going to give Rome to Egypt. o Octavian almost corners Antony and Cleopatra, but a wind scatters the ocean fleet. Antony and Cleopatra flee but they’re quickly followed by Octavian. Cleopatra and Antony try to muster arms to fight Octavian but they don’t have enough time. Octavian attacks, kills Antony, locks Cleopatra in her own tomb, kills her son, and at the end of the day Octavian kills Cleopatra. Egypt is no longer an independent state and this ends the Republic. Hickson The end of the Civil Wars: Actium 3230BC KEY: Processes Authors People Key Words Legal document/charter (written as Lex (law) the name of the person who wrote it) Order of Eras: Classic Antiquity, Roman Era, Late Antiquity, Early Medieval, High Middle Ages, Renaissance, Early Modern, Modern. Art and Design Building – Fine Arts Gallery; AlMutanabbi Street Starts here to March 4. MF 10AM5PM Looting of Baghdad Museum. Look for recreated items from an empire we discussed in class earlier on. Reverse engineer what the art students did, track down the original image of the looted item. Items from museums are photographed and given a museum number and excavation numbers. Nimrud. Quiz format: First two questions about the main timeline, what came in what order. Other questions will ask about processes of change in the time period (ex. Classical Antiquity times, Mediterranean Colonization). Defining words/Analytical Forms that are important to the era, like Alienation and Trading Settlement. Identify a stage in the process to elaborate on, cause and effect, consequences (ex. Greeks taking over most of Europe on the coasts to get food and control trade). Identify a person/people who influenced the times and what was their cause and effect on the time (ex. Ashur Nasir Pal II, Greeks, Phoenicians, Etruscans, but must be different than in the stage)