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SOC 3890 Chapter 10 Notes

by: Abby Joannes

SOC 3890 Chapter 10 Notes SOC 3890

Marketplace > Clemson University > Sociology > SOC 3890 > SOC 3890 Chapter 10 Notes
Abby Joannes
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About this Document

These notes cover the chapter readings and the powerpoint of chapter 10
Sociology of Criminology
Dr. White
Class Notes
sociology, criminology, Clemson, SOC 3890
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Joannes on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 3890 at Clemson University taught by Dr. White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Criminology in Sociology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/26/16
SOC 389 Chapter 10 Notes Book Notes • Types of Violence o Expressive violence: violence that is designed not for profit or gain but to vent rage, anger, or frustration o Instrumental violence: violence used in an attempt to improve the financial or social position of the criminal • Causes of Violence o Psychological/Biological Abnormality § Dorothy Otnow Lewis: kids who kill may be suffering from multiple symptoms § Recent survey shows that there is a significant relationship between mental health treatment opportunities and global crime rates o Human instinct § Social interaction o Substance abuse § Psychopharmacological relationship: might be the direct consequence of ingesting mood-altering substances § Economic compulsive behavior: may resort to violence to obtain the financial resources to support their habit § Systemic link: to dominate territory and drive out rivals o Socialization and upbringing § Cycle of violence § Violentization process: the process by which abused children are turned into aggressive adults. This process takes violent youths full circle from being the victims of aggression to its initiators; they are now the same person they grew up despising o Exposure to violence § Crusted over: children who have been victims of or witnesses to violence and do not let people inside, nor do they express their feelings o Cultural values: Subculture of Violence § Subculture of violence: norms and customs that, in contrast to society’s dominant value system, legitimize and expect the use of violence to resolve social conflicts § Disputatiousness: behavior within culturally defined conflict situations in which an individual who has been offended by a negative outcome in a dispute seeks reparations through violent means o Cultural values: National Values § Possible causes • Nations with high violence rates embrace value structures that support violence, while those that have a strong communication • Nations with high violence rates also have negative structural factors such as high levels of poverty • Rape o History § Recognized crime throughout history, was common in early civilization § Middle Ages: “heiress stealing” § 15 century was when forcible sex was outlawed o Rape and War § Women were put in the middle of war and it was viewed as a socially acceptable to rape them o Incidence of Rape § 85,000 reports a year § Declining trends § Underreported because many are embarrassed or blame themselves o Types of Rape and Rapists § Gang rape: forcible sex involving multiple attackers § Serial rape: multiple rapes committed by one person over time § Acquaintance rape: forcible sex in which offender and victim are acquainted with each other • Date rape: forcible sex during a courted relationship • Statutory rape: sexual relations between an underage individual and an adult • Marital rape: forcible sex between legally married people o Causes of rape § Evolutionary, biological factors § Male socialization • Virility mystique: the belief that males must separate their sexual feelings from needs to love, respect, and affection § Psychological abnormality • Narcissistic personality disorder: a condition marked by a persistent pattern of self-importance, need for admiration, lack of empathy, and preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or love. § Social learning § Sexual motivation o Rape and the law § Police and courts are now becoming more sensitive to the plight of rape victims and are just as likely to investigate acquaintance rapes as they are aggravated rapes • Aggravated rapes: rape involving multiple offenders, weapons, and victim injuries § Proving rape • Proves to be a challenge, it is often easy to shift the blame to the victim § Consent: the burden of proof is often in the victim to show that her character is beyond question and that she in no way encouraged, enticed, or misled the accused rapist. Proving victim has a good character is not a requirement in any other crime. § Reform • Because of the difficulty rape victims have in obtaining justice, rape laws have been changing around the country. • Most states are changing terminology to the more neutral in gender term, “crimes of sexual assault” • Shield laws: laws designed to protect rape victims by prohibiting the defense attorney from inquiring about their previous sexual relationships • Murder and Homicide o Murder: the unlawful killing of a human being with malicious intent o Degrees of murder § First degree murder- deliberate and premeditated • Premeditation: consideration of a homicide before it occurs • Felony murder: a homicide in the context of another felony, such as robbery or rape; legally defined as first-degree § Second degree murder- malice but no premeditation or deliberation • Deliberation: planning a homicide after careful thought, however brief, rather than acting on sudden impulse § Manslaughter: homicide without malice • Nonnegligent manslaughter: homicide committed in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel • Involuntary manslaughter (negligent manslaughter): homicide that occurs as a result of acts that are negligent and without regard for the harm they may cause others o Nature and extent of murder § Feticide: endangering or killing an unborn fetus § Infanticide: the murder of a very young child § Filicide: murder of an older child o Murderous Relations § Acquaintance murders (most murders are of this kind) § Intimate partner murder § Sexually based murders § Stranger murders (about 20%) § School murders o Serial Murder § Serial killer: the killing of a large number of people over time by an offender who seeks to escape detection § Types of serial killers • Thrill killers • Mission killers • Expedience killers o Mass murders: the killing of a large number of people in a single incident by an offender who typically does not seek concealment or escape o Spree killers • Assault and Battery o What is the difference? § Battery: slapping, hitting, or punching a victim § Assault: no actual touching but involves either attempted battery or intentionally frightening the victim by word or deed o Assault in the home § Child abuse: any physical, emotional, or sexual trauma to a child for which no reasonable explanation, such as an accident, can be found. • Neglect: not providing a child with the care and shelter to which he or she is entitled • Causes of child abuse: family violence, blended families, isolation from others § Sexual abuse: exploitation of a child through rape, incest, or molestation by a parent or other adult § Parental abuse • Usually associated with some other form of violence § Spousal abuse • Predicting factors o Presence of alcohol o Access to weapons o Stepchild in the home o Estrangement o Hostility toward dependency o Excessive brooding o Social learning o Socioeconomic factors o Flashes of anger o Military service o Having been battered children o Unpredictability o Dating Violence § Relational aggression: psychological and emotional abuse that involves the spreading of smears, rumors, and private information in order to harm their partner • Robbery o Types of robberies § Robbery in an open area § Commercial robbery § Robbery on private premises § Acquaintance robbery: robbers who focus their thefts on people they know • Robbery after a short, preliminary association between victim and offender • Robbery after a longer association between victim and offender § Carjacking o Types of Robbers § Professional robbers § Opportunist robbers § Addict robbers § Alcoholic robbers • Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence o Hate crimes: acts of violence or intimidation designed to terrorize or frighten people considered undesirable because of their race, religion, ethnic origin, or sexual orientation § Thrill-seeking hate crimes: acts by hatemongers who join forces to have fun by bashing minorities or destroying property; inflicting pain on others gives them a sadistic thrill § Reactive (defensive) hate crimes: perpetrators believe they are taking a defensive stand against outsiders whom they believe threaten their community or way of life § Mission hate crimes: violent crimes committed by disturbed individuals who see it as their duty to rid the world of evil § Retaliatory hate crime: a hate crime motivated by revenge for another hate crime, either real or imaginary, which may spark further retaliation o Workplace violence § Can take a number of different forms • Violent acts by criminals who have no other connection with the workplace but enter to commit robbery or another crime • Violence directed at employees by customers, clients, patients, students, inmates, or any other for whom the organization provides services • Violence against coworkers, supervisors, or managers by a present or former employee • Violence committed in the workplace by someone who doesn’t work there but has a personal relationship with an employee § Sufferance: the aggrieved party does nothing to rectify a conflict situation; over time, the unresolved conflict may by compounded by other events that cause an eventual eruption o Stalking: a pattern of behavior directed at a specific person that includes repeated physical or visual proximity, unwanted communications, and/or threats sufficient to cause fear in a reasonable person PowerPoint Notes • Explanations for violence o Human traits and makeup o Evolutionary factors and human instinct o Substance abuse o Improper socialization and upbringing o Exposure to violence o Cultural values • Causes of Violence o Psychological/biological abnormality § Lewis says kids who kill may suffer from multiple symptoms of psychological abnormality: • Neurological impairment • Low intelligence • Psychotic symptoms o National Values § 6 national characteristics predictive of violence: • High level of social disorganization • Economic stress • High rates of child abuse • Approval of violence by the government • Political corruption • An inefficient justice system • Forcible Rape o 6 widely accepted types of rapists: § Gang rape § Serial rape § Acquaintance rape § Date rape § Marital rape § Statutory rape o Causes of rape § Evolutionary, biological factors § Male socialization • Virility mystique § Psychological abnormality § Social learning § Sexual motivation


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