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Exam 3 Lecture Notes

by: Kelsi Rau

Exam 3 Lecture Notes MCB2000

Marketplace > University of Florida > Microbiology > MCB2000 > Exam 3 Lecture Notes
Kelsi Rau

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These notes cover what we will be tested on in Exam 3 from his lectures
Dr. Asghari
Class Notes
micro, Microbiology, class notes, Exam 3
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsi Rau on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MCB2000 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Asghari in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 02/26/16
Saturday, May 21, y Exam 3 Lecture Notes Terms Used in the Study of Infectious Diseases Parasite: live off other resources, part of life, they always benefit from the other  ­ organism, includes harming the other ­ Colonization: when the actual organism establishes and grows on your body Infectious Diseases: diseases caused by microbial organisms, (liver, kidney disease  ­ not infectious, nothing to do with microorganism), disease­ some functions of your  system have been impaired and are not functioning normally  ­ Pathogen: only a small fraction of microorganisms cause disease as pathogens ­ Pathogenic: some are opportunistic, may not cause disease in you, but may cause it  in another person, healthy people are not usually affected by it, some people are  immunocompromised individuals­ all people can be exposed but these people will get sick easily (ex: HIV) ­ Immunologically compromised host: lower resistance to infection  ­ Systemic infection: transfer through the blood ­ Latent infection: remains with you for a long period of time, microorganisms don ’t  leave the tissue, no symptoms are observed, (ex: herpes virus­ can never leave you  once gotten, every once in a while you have a flare up, rashes, can take medicine but cannot cure) (ex: syphilis­ bacteria infection, causes problems and goes away but  can come back again and again if not treated with antibiotics), some cases latency is  forever­ there is no cure Virulence Factors and Types of Infection Acute: short but severe, over soon, doesn't kill you right away, goes away soon,  ­ inflammation is good here­ if quick and efficient 1 Saturday, May 21, y ­ Chronic: mild form of the infection for the long term, stays with you for a long period  of time, damages your body as time goes by, if you have this­ the microbes are inside you in different parts­the immune system is constantly following them­inflammation  happens in different parts of your body­ this is not good within chronic infection­ causes damages without you knowing it,  ­ body can produce antibodies against your own body and your own DNA ­ Fulminating Infection: with great intensity, (ex: meningitis), grows so fast and  multiplies very quickly, very dangerous ­ Latent: can be lifetime with no symptoms, asymptomatic ­ Opportunistic: dont normally effect healthy people, is you have a low immunity it  effects you ­ Nosocomial: from healthcare facility, comes from staff­patients, old microbes can be  moving and given to someone else ­ Koch ’s Postulate: 1 microbe —> 1 disease, some exceptions; multiple microbes can  be involved in the same infection, only applied for infectious diseases­ not all disease ­ Pyogenic: puss­forming, different than Pyrogenic­ fever inducing molecules ­ Sepsis: microbes grow and multiply and spread through your blood, very serious  condition, the toxins of microbes spreading in the blood or the tissue, can lead to.. ­ Septic Shock: very serious, blood pressure drops­ collapse ­ Septicemia: gram negative is more severe, when microbes are killed­ gram negative  release endotoxins­ outer membrane­LPS, own consequences­ inflammation­  bleeding­ hemorrhage­ fever, has to be treated with endotoxin treatment and bacterial treatment   ­ Zoonotic disease: primarily transferred from animals to humans 2 Saturday, May 21, y Virulence Factors ­ Enzymes, pili, fimbrae, flagella, plasmid, endotoxins, exotoxins, cell wall, capsule,  glycocelix ­ Exotoxins are  proteins produced and secreted that damage the cell, gram neg, and  pos ­ Endotoxins are part of the gram negative outer membrane, all gram neg ­ Protein A: binds to immune system components, prevent phagocytosis  ­ Enzymes: coagulase, hyaluronidase­ dissolves connective tissue­ allows spread of  the bacteria in the body ­ Streptokinase: binds and activates the production of plasmid Coagulase: insulate the bacteria so the immune system cannot get to it, protects the  ­ bacteria by creating a gel blood ­ Leukocidins: white blood cells  ­ Super antigens: molecules that act beyond a normal infection, treat the body with  multiple infections, results in overreaction by the immune system, results in shock  and self­inflicted wounds ­ microorganisms can have the capacity to escape and not get caught, they use the  capsule to attach and be able to block the immune system ­ Protease: kill antibody, don’t allow immune system to function properly ­ anything that can grow without any damage is a virulence factor Intracellular Pathogens ­ protects against the immune system 3 Saturday, May 21, y ­ obligate intracellular pathogens: have no choice of inside or out, some is bacteria­ virus­fungi, rely on the host and everything for all energy sources and reproduction,  Viruses are the only ones who need everything from the host Extracellular ­ constantly follows you ­ grows outside the cell Infectious Agents ­ Bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoans, viruses, prions, plant pathogens ­ mycroplasma: serious disease, no cell wall in the bacteria, not gram pos or neg ­ TB: has unusual cell wall, cant be described as gram neg or pos ­ cocci or basilla Skin ­ Epidermis: top layer of skin, constantly growing and shedding cells, includes dead  cells, no pH, produces Sebum in the sebaceous glands, dry, cool, has own normal  flora, general population of bacteria living on the skin ­ microbes can crawl in around the shaft of the hair sweat glands produce salt, inhibitory with most microbes  ­ ­ Strep: streptolysin, flesh­eating, fever, M protein ­ Strep: less resistant to antibiotics, gram positive, cocci shape, in chains ­ Staph: coagulase, resistant, protein A, penicillinase Staph: more resistant to antibiotics, cocci, gram positive, in clusters, causes diseases ­ —> 4 Saturday, May 21, y ­ Both Strep and Staph produce hemolysins, both can cause toxic syndrome ­ Group A Streptococcus: most infectious agent to humans, more diseases caused by  this group than any microbe­bacteria­virus, has a unique virulence pili­rs:  attachment & M protein­antiphagocytic, has capsule hyaluronic acid­ camouflage  factor­harder to detect­allows bacteria to blend into environment so immune system  cannot detect it streptolysin­ kills WBC and RBC in the epithelial layer­ part of normal  flora, causes invasive and systemic infections­respiratory infections­sore throat ­ — >Necrotizing Fasciitis­ flesh eating bacteria, destroys the tissue and spreads, life­ threatening, can kill you in 48 hours ­ — >toxic shock syndrome­ bacteria produces superantigen which overruns the  immune system and causes it to shut down and go into shock, ­ — >causes MRSA­meticillin resistant staph auerus­ penicillin is the antibiotic used  against this — ­ >Cellulitis­ ­ — > Scarlet Fever­  ­ — >Impetigo­type of brownish rash that spreads throughout the body­childhood  diseases­highly contagious, topical treatment, full recovery, no scarring­ skin  regenerates constantly ­ — >Scalded Skin Syndrome­ bacterial infection, highly contagious, treated with  antibiotics, mostly children and babies, top layer of skin peels off ­ — >Conjunctivitis­ Trachoma­ eye infection caused by chlamydia, Mycoses­fungal  infection ­ some staph are part of the normal flora ­ Hospital acquired and community acquired  Infections of hair molecules: sty­eye, furuncles, carbuncles­ all caused by staph  ­ infection ­ Coagulase: form clot to protect bacteria, insulates bacteria against the system 5 Saturday, May 21, y Maculopapular Rash Diseases ­ Childhood rashes, viral infections, all skin infections, all different forms of rashes these diseases are basically under control in this country, 70% of population or more  ­ are vaccinated­ much less of the disease is seen ­ not much treatment available, vaccines available for all of them ­ Measles, Rubella, Fifth disease, Roseola Viral Infections ­ Lesions in small pox destroy the dermis (under layer of the skin), leaves permanent  scarring, get by inhaling, vaccine available, this disease was eradicated, last person  with the disease was found in 1970 ­ chicken pox effects the epidermis (upper layer of the skin), get by inhaling, vaccine  available, form of herpes virus­ it will never go away, Latency  ­ Hepatitis A: contaminated food from a person with this virus, it is eaten, virus comes  out through fecal matter Conjunctivitus caused by chlamydia infection ­ ­ caused by gonnorhhaea ­ Trachoma: blindness, caused by chlamydia CNS ­ brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves ­ Meninges­ casing, multilayer, covers all of brain ­Meningitis­ inflammed or infected, can die of quickly ­Meningiococcal Meningitis ­ effects babies, more common in children than older people  6 Saturday, May 21, y ­ Listeriosis­can cause meningitis ­Encephalitis­  diseases of the brain bacteria or virus moves through the nerve and gets  into the brain and affects brain cells, can die of quickly ­ Blood­ brain barrier, decides what passes through the meninges and what doesnt,  has restriction sides  ­ Tetanus­  vaccine­ sometimes protection is lifelong­ sometimes its just for a period,  bacteria that causes lockjaw­ keeps body in contracting position, makes stiff muscle,   **clostridium­ group of organisms that cause many diseases­ anaerobic­ produces  endospores (dormant form of life, resistant to heat, dryness)­ causes Tetanus­ Botulism­Gangrene­CDAD­ present in soil, blocks communication between  neurotransmitter and muscles ­ Prions­ CJD ­ Pollo  ­ Botulism If an infection gets through the nerves it can get into the CNS and cause problems ­ ­Rabies ­ sometimes there are alerts of the virus, raccoons are mostly on the eastern  seaboard of U.S., bats can carry virus as well, disease of CNS, virus punctures  through bites, zoonotic disease, if bitten get help before the disease shows up­ has  long incubation period (weeks), prevention­post exposure passive, antibody­ protein  produced by immune system, post exposure prophylaxis­ protection after the fact,  ­ brain and spinal cord are covered with casing where anything that passes through the body has a hard time getting into it Bacteria that causes Meningitis ­ bacteria can get into the system, survive, and get into the meninges and cause  problems  ­ has a capsule, makes it hard to remove and destroy 7 Saturday, May 21, y ­ antibiotics ­ HIB­ many receive vaccine, protects against homophilus influenza­ causes meningitis ­ some fungi  ­ bacterial meningitis: more in danger of dying, antibiotics available ­ viral meningitis: more common, much milder, not as severe, no treatment Polio ­ everyone has received the vaccine for this disease ­ inactive version of the vaccine is available  ­ ingest the virus through contaminated water, activity in pool water, fecal matter ­ goes into the NS, effects the movement of your body, makes you cripple, cannot walk endemic still in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria ­ ­ 80% of world lives in polio free areas Arboviral Encephalitis ­ Arboviral: arthropod borne viruses ­ West nile virus­ travels with mosquito, usually covers the whole country, viral  infections, geographic distribution, mosquitos breed in quiet undisturbed water ­ Western Equine Encephalitis (EEE)­ sporadically in western parts / Canada, between horses and humans,  ­ St. Louis Encephalitis­ geography plays a role, North and South America ­ ****just know these^^ are all viral infections that go between Horse and Humans  8 Saturday, May 21, y Microbial Diseases of the Cardiovascular System Septicemia: presence of microbes in the blood, G­ is more severe, release  ­ endotoxins Toxemia: release of bacterial toxins into the blood stream,  ­ ­ Both^^: G­ is more common than G+, develops RAPIDLT (fever, chills, vomitting),  blood pressure drops —> combination of all this is septic shock ­ this system includes the lymph nodes: located everywhere, swell to protect the body,  possible that cancer cells travel through the lymph nodes ­ plasma: ­ microbes: malaria, not a bacteria, not a virus, its a parasite, a protozoa, plasmodium  species­ causes malaria, human is the host, arthropod borne disease ­ Protozoa: two forms of life; 1) Cyst­ form transmission, if ingested you get sick,  resistant to elements, resist water treatment system 2) Trophozoite­ infectious form,  active form, grows inside the body, water treatment systems Plosmodium/Malaria cycle: human ­ —> mosquito—> human—> mosquito is part of  malaria, part of malaria goes to liver­part goes to RBC, then it ruptures RBCs,  releases oocycles, in 48 hours there is fever and chill which are characteristics of  malaria, its a cycle, eventually results in enemia and liver problems, recurrance­ it  can come back later on, treatment is Chloroquine, Endemic disease, Malaria belt­  300 million people affected, mostly in southern hemisphere of the world­in traveling  overseas ­ HIV: infects WBC/leukocytes, develops inefficiency, hits the cell of the immune  system and kills them, lowers the immunity, prone to infection, sexually transmission  is the most common way of transmission, RNA —>DNA—> Host, the problem with the virus changes a lot­very sloppy machinery for replication, Clads­ different variety­ makes the vaccines inoperable because the virus is always changing and mutating  (flu­virus does this as well), Preventable disease­ avoid contact with a person who  has it, Treatment­ RT inhibiter & Protease inhibiter­antiretroviral drugs­sometimes  become ineffective easily, millions infected­Africa­ no people older than 30­40  9 Saturday, May 21, y because all get HIV and die, main target is CD4 cells, attaches to the surface and  uses the RT­ unique to viruses, mutation changes enzymes so it is hard to attack the  virus AIDS: die of complications from other diseases/fungal infections/other infections, can  ­ develop chronic ulcer, neurosystem diseases, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular  diseases, genitourinary tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, skin diseases, TB­ co­infection 10


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