Exam 3 Lecture Notes
Exam 3 Lecture Notes MCB2000
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Popular in Microbiology
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsi Rau on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MCB2000 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Asghari in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Saturday, May 21, y Exam 3 Lecture Notes Terms Used in the Study of Infectious Diseases Parasite: live off other resources, part of life, they always benefit from the other organism, includes harming the other Colonization: when the actual organism establishes and grows on your body Infectious Diseases: diseases caused by microbial organisms, (liver, kidney disease not infectious, nothing to do with microorganism), disease some functions of your system have been impaired and are not functioning normally Pathogen: only a small fraction of microorganisms cause disease as pathogens Pathogenic: some are opportunistic, may not cause disease in you, but may cause it in another person, healthy people are not usually affected by it, some people are immunocompromised individuals all people can be exposed but these people will get sick easily (ex: HIV) Immunologically compromised host: lower resistance to infection Systemic infection: transfer through the blood Latent infection: remains with you for a long period of time, microorganisms don ’t leave the tissue, no symptoms are observed, (ex: herpes virus can never leave you once gotten, every once in a while you have a flare up, rashes, can take medicine but cannot cure) (ex: syphilis bacteria infection, causes problems and goes away but can come back again and again if not treated with antibiotics), some cases latency is forever there is no cure Virulence Factors and Types of Infection Acute: short but severe, over soon, doesn't kill you right away, goes away soon, inflammation is good here if quick and efficient 1 Saturday, May 21, y Chronic: mild form of the infection for the long term, stays with you for a long period of time, damages your body as time goes by, if you have this the microbes are inside you in different partsthe immune system is constantly following theminflammation happens in different parts of your body this is not good within chronic infection causes damages without you knowing it, body can produce antibodies against your own body and your own DNA Fulminating Infection: with great intensity, (ex: meningitis), grows so fast and multiplies very quickly, very dangerous Latent: can be lifetime with no symptoms, asymptomatic Opportunistic: dont normally effect healthy people, is you have a low immunity it effects you Nosocomial: from healthcare facility, comes from staffpatients, old microbes can be moving and given to someone else Koch ’s Postulate: 1 microbe —> 1 disease, some exceptions; multiple microbes can be involved in the same infection, only applied for infectious diseases not all disease Pyogenic: pussforming, different than Pyrogenic fever inducing molecules Sepsis: microbes grow and multiply and spread through your blood, very serious condition, the toxins of microbes spreading in the blood or the tissue, can lead to.. Septic Shock: very serious, blood pressure drops collapse Septicemia: gram negative is more severe, when microbes are killed gram negative release endotoxins outer membraneLPS, own consequences inflammation bleeding hemorrhage fever, has to be treated with endotoxin treatment and bacterial treatment Zoonotic disease: primarily transferred from animals to humans 2 Saturday, May 21, y Virulence Factors Enzymes, pili, fimbrae, flagella, plasmid, endotoxins, exotoxins, cell wall, capsule, glycocelix Exotoxins are proteins produced and secreted that damage the cell, gram neg, and pos Endotoxins are part of the gram negative outer membrane, all gram neg Protein A: binds to immune system components, prevent phagocytosis Enzymes: coagulase, hyaluronidase dissolves connective tissue allows spread of the bacteria in the body Streptokinase: binds and activates the production of plasmid Coagulase: insulate the bacteria so the immune system cannot get to it, protects the bacteria by creating a gel blood Leukocidins: white blood cells Super antigens: molecules that act beyond a normal infection, treat the body with multiple infections, results in overreaction by the immune system, results in shock and selfinflicted wounds microorganisms can have the capacity to escape and not get caught, they use the capsule to attach and be able to block the immune system Protease: kill antibody, don’t allow immune system to function properly anything that can grow without any damage is a virulence factor Intracellular Pathogens protects against the immune system 3 Saturday, May 21, y obligate intracellular pathogens: have no choice of inside or out, some is bacteria virusfungi, rely on the host and everything for all energy sources and reproduction, Viruses are the only ones who need everything from the host Extracellular constantly follows you grows outside the cell Infectious Agents Bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoans, viruses, prions, plant pathogens mycroplasma: serious disease, no cell wall in the bacteria, not gram pos or neg TB: has unusual cell wall, cant be described as gram neg or pos cocci or basilla Skin Epidermis: top layer of skin, constantly growing and shedding cells, includes dead cells, no pH, produces Sebum in the sebaceous glands, dry, cool, has own normal flora, general population of bacteria living on the skin microbes can crawl in around the shaft of the hair sweat glands produce salt, inhibitory with most microbes Strep: streptolysin, flesheating, fever, M protein Strep: less resistant to antibiotics, gram positive, cocci shape, in chains Staph: coagulase, resistant, protein A, penicillinase Staph: more resistant to antibiotics, cocci, gram positive, in clusters, causes diseases —> 4 Saturday, May 21, y Both Strep and Staph produce hemolysins, both can cause toxic syndrome Group A Streptococcus: most infectious agent to humans, more diseases caused by this group than any microbebacteriavirus, has a unique virulence pilirs: attachment & M proteinantiphagocytic, has capsule hyaluronic acid camouflage factorharder to detectallows bacteria to blend into environment so immune system cannot detect it streptolysin kills WBC and RBC in the epithelial layer part of normal flora, causes invasive and systemic infectionsrespiratory infectionssore throat — >Necrotizing Fasciitis flesh eating bacteria, destroys the tissue and spreads, life threatening, can kill you in 48 hours — >toxic shock syndrome bacteria produces superantigen which overruns the immune system and causes it to shut down and go into shock, — >causes MRSAmeticillin resistant staph auerus penicillin is the antibiotic used against this — >Cellulitis — > Scarlet Fever — >Impetigotype of brownish rash that spreads throughout the bodychildhood diseaseshighly contagious, topical treatment, full recovery, no scarring skin regenerates constantly — >Scalded Skin Syndrome bacterial infection, highly contagious, treated with antibiotics, mostly children and babies, top layer of skin peels off — >Conjunctivitis Trachoma eye infection caused by chlamydia, Mycosesfungal infection some staph are part of the normal flora Hospital acquired and community acquired Infections of hair molecules: styeye, furuncles, carbuncles all caused by staph infection Coagulase: form clot to protect bacteria, insulates bacteria against the system 5 Saturday, May 21, y Maculopapular Rash Diseases Childhood rashes, viral infections, all skin infections, all different forms of rashes these diseases are basically under control in this country, 70% of population or more are vaccinated much less of the disease is seen not much treatment available, vaccines available for all of them Measles, Rubella, Fifth disease, Roseola Viral Infections Lesions in small pox destroy the dermis (under layer of the skin), leaves permanent scarring, get by inhaling, vaccine available, this disease was eradicated, last person with the disease was found in 1970 chicken pox effects the epidermis (upper layer of the skin), get by inhaling, vaccine available, form of herpes virus it will never go away, Latency Hepatitis A: contaminated food from a person with this virus, it is eaten, virus comes out through fecal matter Conjunctivitus caused by chlamydia infection caused by gonnorhhaea Trachoma: blindness, caused by chlamydia CNS brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves Meninges casing, multilayer, covers all of brain Meningitis inflammed or infected, can die of quickly Meningiococcal Meningitis effects babies, more common in children than older people 6 Saturday, May 21, y Listeriosiscan cause meningitis Encephalitis diseases of the brain bacteria or virus moves through the nerve and gets into the brain and affects brain cells, can die of quickly Blood brain barrier, decides what passes through the meninges and what doesnt, has restriction sides Tetanus vaccine sometimes protection is lifelong sometimes its just for a period, bacteria that causes lockjaw keeps body in contracting position, makes stiff muscle, **clostridium group of organisms that cause many diseases anaerobic produces endospores (dormant form of life, resistant to heat, dryness) causes Tetanus BotulismGangreneCDAD present in soil, blocks communication between neurotransmitter and muscles Prions CJD Pollo Botulism If an infection gets through the nerves it can get into the CNS and cause problems Rabies sometimes there are alerts of the virus, raccoons are mostly on the eastern seaboard of U.S., bats can carry virus as well, disease of CNS, virus punctures through bites, zoonotic disease, if bitten get help before the disease shows up has long incubation period (weeks), preventionpost exposure passive, antibody protein produced by immune system, post exposure prophylaxis protection after the fact, brain and spinal cord are covered with casing where anything that passes through the body has a hard time getting into it Bacteria that causes Meningitis bacteria can get into the system, survive, and get into the meninges and cause problems has a capsule, makes it hard to remove and destroy 7 Saturday, May 21, y antibiotics HIB many receive vaccine, protects against homophilus influenza causes meningitis some fungi bacterial meningitis: more in danger of dying, antibiotics available viral meningitis: more common, much milder, not as severe, no treatment Polio everyone has received the vaccine for this disease inactive version of the vaccine is available ingest the virus through contaminated water, activity in pool water, fecal matter goes into the NS, effects the movement of your body, makes you cripple, cannot walk endemic still in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria 80% of world lives in polio free areas Arboviral Encephalitis Arboviral: arthropod borne viruses West nile virus travels with mosquito, usually covers the whole country, viral infections, geographic distribution, mosquitos breed in quiet undisturbed water Western Equine Encephalitis (EEE) sporadically in western parts / Canada, between horses and humans, St. Louis Encephalitis geography plays a role, North and South America ****just know these^^ are all viral infections that go between Horse and Humans 8 Saturday, May 21, y Microbial Diseases of the Cardiovascular System Septicemia: presence of microbes in the blood, G is more severe, release endotoxins Toxemia: release of bacterial toxins into the blood stream, Both^^: G is more common than G+, develops RAPIDLT (fever, chills, vomitting), blood pressure drops —> combination of all this is septic shock this system includes the lymph nodes: located everywhere, swell to protect the body, possible that cancer cells travel through the lymph nodes plasma: microbes: malaria, not a bacteria, not a virus, its a parasite, a protozoa, plasmodium species causes malaria, human is the host, arthropod borne disease Protozoa: two forms of life; 1) Cyst form transmission, if ingested you get sick, resistant to elements, resist water treatment system 2) Trophozoite infectious form, active form, grows inside the body, water treatment systems Plosmodium/Malaria cycle: human —> mosquito—> human—> mosquito is part of malaria, part of malaria goes to liverpart goes to RBC, then it ruptures RBCs, releases oocycles, in 48 hours there is fever and chill which are characteristics of malaria, its a cycle, eventually results in enemia and liver problems, recurrance it can come back later on, treatment is Chloroquine, Endemic disease, Malaria belt 300 million people affected, mostly in southern hemisphere of the worldin traveling overseas HIV: infects WBC/leukocytes, develops inefficiency, hits the cell of the immune system and kills them, lowers the immunity, prone to infection, sexually transmission is the most common way of transmission, RNA —>DNA—> Host, the problem with the virus changes a lotvery sloppy machinery for replication, Clads different variety makes the vaccines inoperable because the virus is always changing and mutating (fluvirus does this as well), Preventable disease avoid contact with a person who has it, Treatment RT inhibiter & Protease inhibiterantiretroviral drugssometimes become ineffective easily, millions infectedAfrica no people older than 3040 9 Saturday, May 21, y because all get HIV and die, main target is CD4 cells, attaches to the surface and uses the RT unique to viruses, mutation changes enzymes so it is hard to attack the virus AIDS: die of complications from other diseases/fungal infections/other infections, can develop chronic ulcer, neurosystem diseases, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, genitourinary tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, skin diseases, TB coinfection 10
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