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Bio notes for 2.23.16

by: Shayla Pedigo

Bio notes for 2.23.16 Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Shayla Pedigo

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About this Document

These are good to study or if you missed lecture.
Athena Anderson
Class Notes
Biology, Biology 11100, Bio
25 ?




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Popular in Biology

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayla Pedigo on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/26/16
Bio notes for 2.23.16 NERVOUS SYSTEM Control Systems in Animals- Physiology of animals controlled by two main systems: 1. Endocrine system 2. Nervous system Nervous System- -Rapid response via electrical signals -Interprets information about your body & environment, decides whether & how to respond. -Made of neuron (nerve) and support (glial) cells >>Two subdivisions: 1. Central (CNS): brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral (PNS): neurons outside CNS Central Nervous System- CNS has two parts: 1. Brain 2. Spinal cord Receives and integrates information from the body and directs an appropriate output response. Brain- Control center for entire body  physical movement  emotions  thoughts  endocrine signals  individuality  learning  memories  language  sensations Brain Anatomy- Cerebrum: largest part; anterior in skull; two hemispheres; several regions  frontal lobe  parietal lobe  occipital lobe  temporal lobe Cerebellum: posterior in skull; beneath cerebrum; muscle coordination  only 10% of brain mass  contains ½ brain’s neurons Regions and functions- Two hemispheres joined by nerve bundle in center (corpus callosum) Triune Brain Theory Brain evolved like all other animal features SPINAL CHORD- Superhighway for messages b/w brain & body; connection between CNS & PNS PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM PNS has 2 types of neurons: 1. Sensory neurons (afferent)- bring information TO the brain FROM the body 2. Motor neurons (efferent)- carry information FROM the brain TO the body Interneurons (in CNS) process info from afferent neurons, & send signals via efferent neuron NEURONS- Signal-conducting cells of the nervous system; composed of three parts: 1. Dendrites receive signals from other cells and conduct them to cell body 2. Cell body contains nucleus, other organelles 3. Axons conduct signals from cell body to other nerve cells & organs Neurons “talk” to each other via neurotransmitters that cross synapses between cells Myelin: fatty white substance that insulates some nerve axons, preventing interaction w/ surrounding charged molecules Interneurons in CNS process informat Resting Potential- Inside cells negatively charged compared to outside Attraction of opposite charges across membrane is potential energy  Membrane potential= charge difference (voltage) across membrane  Resting potential= membrane potential of a resting neuron (not sending a signal) Neuron cell membranes impermeable to • Na (Sodium) • Cl (Chloride) • Proteins + Cells permeable to K (Potassium) Leads to (+) charge leaking out as + K diffuses out Negative charge can’t follow Active transport by Na / K + pump keeps Na concentration higher outside, and K + concentration higher inside cells Some transport proteins are activated by voltage Action Potential Signal from neuron  “All-or-none” phenomenon +  depolarization occurs along axons or dendrites; Na allowed to enter cell, depolarizing membrane  depolarization travels (propagation), leading to release of neurotransmitters  neurotransmitter release from one neuron causes action potential in next neuron Increasing Speed of Conductance 1. Increase diameter:  resistance inversely proportional to diameter  larger diameter = lower resistance 2. Insulate axon with myelin:  conduction jumps between unmyelinated nodes  faster than unmyelinated neurons Neurotransmitters  Chemical signals released by neurons into the synaptic space- the “synapse”  Usually only one type of neurotransmitter is released by each neuron  Neurons may RECEIVE signals at their dendrites from many different neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters change charge of post-synaptic neuron when they bind to its receptors Neurotransmitter can do one of two things to post-synaptic neuron: 1. excite: depolarize and cause to fire 2. inhibit : hyperpolarize and inhibit firing


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