Latino Art in the US - Week 5
Latino Art in the US - Week 5 ARTH 28700
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by sconsidine on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 28700 at Ithaca College taught by Professor Jennifer Jolly in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Latino Art in the US in Art History at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
February 22, 2016 Rasquachismo -make do with what you have -community sense -counter-culture, subversion to the dominant culture, anti-dominant culture -risk, marginal -“underdog” culture -aesthetic style, “tacky” -attitude -judgement of good or bad taste -embracing idea of what somebody has labeled as bad taste -Zoot Suit, 1978 - Luis Valdez -went over well in L.A. in 1978 -turned into a Broadway show in 1979 where it did poorly -became a ﬁlm in 1981 and did well -theatrical style emerges out of tradition of itinerant theater: gaudy, raunchy, stylized, exaggeration of characters -ethos (set of ideas/mood): embrace underdog, “OTHER” -keep someone marginalized by saying what they’re doing/who they are is not in good taste -key symbol: zoot suit -judging from outside - idea of being tacky -viewed as bad because people who wore them were outwardly/proudly going against dominant culture -appeared to be excessive/decadent -rationing of fabric during this time for military uniforms -baggy pants, long jacket -moment of upward mobility for minorities - actually had extra money to dress up -shows resistance so it becomes a symbol of criminality -air of conﬁdence -pachuco - term that Mexicans embraced - “cool guy,” also turned into a symbol of criminality -key symbol: the pachuco -part of Henry’s conscience -helping or hurting? -interested in empowerment -pachuco was a key symbol for the Chicano movement -color coded -wears red at the beginning like a devil on the shoulder -by the end he’s wearing all white -manipulative -voice of reason/truth -very ambivalent -view of the pachuco is dependent upon where your values align -values align with Chicanos - pachuco is seen as helpful -values align with idea that justice system is fair - pachuco is seen as hurtful -ﬁgure who stands up for marginalized people -image: -movie poster, Ignatio Gomez -pachuco looks like the guardian of L.A. -literally larger than life -pose shows he’s conﬁdent, self-assured, takes up a lot of space -deﬁant, standofﬁsh -Henry -among his friends he is the pachuco - alpha male -women in the ﬁlm -all love interests, used to give men status -4 archetypes: virgin, career woman, mother, promiscuous woman -Dela - Henry’s girlfriend, virgin archetype, all about Henry, innocent, naïve, victim -Alice - career woman, very focused on her goal, no option for love -bit of an underdog in her own way: CIO leftist labor organizer, woman, Jew -Bertha - promiscuous -Mom - Henry’s mother -resonates well on a broader scale - being an underdog, judicial system doesn’t work the way you think it will - justice always wins in the end February 24, 2016 Resistance from Within: Chicana Feminism -Afﬁrmation: public vs. domestic -images: -Carmen Lomas Garza, The Faith Healer (1989) -shows women are nurturing and caring -Carmen Lomas Garza, Making Tamales (1987) -shows men helping out, but women have central roles -Catholic household with image of Last Supper with Christ as the head similar to woman in image -in charge of kitchen -domestic power -Mike Rios, Aspire to Inspire -male cultural hero in music (Santana) -public power - public mural -barriers of women artists in muralism: -tough, physical work -public, political statements that women are not expected to make -Judy Baca, Woman’s Manual: How to Assemble Scaffolding -practical handbook, but about attitude -images: -Las Mujeres Muralistas, Latin America -Ester Hernandez, Liberty, 1975 -woman reshaping well known Statue of Liberty -woman’s job is to reshape liberty -being held up by ancient queen ﬁgures - reclaiming Aztlan for women as well -Chicana feminism refuses to isolate gender as sole issue -third world feminism recognizes the effects of colonization, different experiences women of different races have, and class’ role -images: -Virgin Guadalupe -ideal woman - modest, virtuous, covered, humble/submissive posture, purity -Yolanda Lopez, Portrait of Artist as the Virgin of Guadalupe, 1978 -image was so threatening - the magazine that published the image was bombed -still know it’s the Virgin of Guadalupe: starry cloak, spiked corona -extremely active, more confrontational -more skin showing - not same degree of modesty -holding cloak as cape - superhero feel -snake in hand - image of Mexico/Aztecs -indigenous: associated with indigenous deities -Catholic: reference to original snake in Garden of Eden -Lopez also does portrait of mother -mother is different generation and is more trying to hold on the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe in world that’s asking them to assimilate -Judy Baca, Las Tres Marias, 1976 -reinterpretation of 3 Mary’s at Jesus’ cruciﬁxion -Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalene (former prostitute) -colored pencils - natural feel -stands at about 5’8”, even with ﬂoor with a mirror in the center -viewer is paced at same height as women shown -woman on the left - 1970’s Chala woman -baggy, masculine clothes -heavy eyeliner -very standofﬁsh -tattoo on arm that says ‘Loca’ -woman on the right - Pachuca woman -heavy makeup -big hair -conﬁdent stance -razor blades holding hair up -‘Loca’ tattoo on hand -mirror makes you question where you stand -presents women as strong -gives power to women and credit to styles that have been appropriated February 26, 2016 -ASCO - nausea -avant-garde artist group consisting of Henry Gamboa, Jr., Gronk, Patssi Valdez, and Willie Herron -avant-garde - originally a military term for front of an army, group that’s leading forward -variation on rasquachismo -avant-garde art critiques previous ideas of what art is (critiques power structures) -ASCO critiques Chicano nationalism and staples of Chicano art, but they still identify as Chicano -ASCO mainly utilizes performance art -art: -ASCO, Spray Paint Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1972 -ASCO asked and was denied the opportunity to present art in the LACMA due to the fact that the curator said Chicano art was either folk art or gang art -ASCO then tags the LACMA and takes a photo of Herrón, Gamboa, and Gronk’s names spray painted with Valdez (woman) standing next to it -shows a resistance to the LACMA in that they were still there displaying their art -do “gang” art because of curator’s comments -signatures show a claim and also show a value in art -picture shows that men are always at the center of art with their signatures and women as their subjects -Willie Herron, The Wall That Cracked Open, LA, 1972 -critiquing muralist from start -subject is problem with gang violence -cracked wall reveals: one ﬁgure is nauseous over scene with another mourning, 2 ﬁgures are ﬁghting -metaphor for how destructive gang violence is -includes grafﬁti in work - Herron says art is one in the same -typically mural vs. grafﬁti is dependent upon people’s attitude about the work, also about permission -Herron says he is not going to get credibility as a muralist by saying his work is above grafﬁti -performance art: -Walking Mural, Christmas Eve, 1972 Whittier Boulevard, LA -Valdez - gothic version of Virgin of Guadalupe, one artist is dressed as Christmas tree -commercialism of Christmas -update idea of Virgin of Guadalupe for more contemporary change -Instant Mural, 1973 -tape Valdez and friend to wall - women in murals are trapped -in these pieces of performance art ASCO is being skeptical of murals: -it’s not enough in that it doesn’t get to root of a problem -murals are ﬁxed -over time you take murals for granted, but performance art is eye-opening and has a shock factor -can see human reaction in performance art -murals have a permanence - performance art is not trying to be permanent, trying to bring about change in that moment in time -art: -Decoy Gang War Victim, 1974 “Spectacle” (Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle, 1967) -Guy Debord - book arguing that truth is based on visual images -set up ﬂares and put one member on ground with ketchup all over them -staged them where they heard violence was going to happen -try to stop further violence -then sent these decoy images to media and media utilized them showing that the media creates the truth it wants to present, truth is based on visual images -No Movie series - all of publicity surround movie (movie posters, interviews, etc.) without actual movie -art: -A La Mode, 1975 (Gronk, Valdez, Gamboa) -ﬁlm still -believable as a ﬁlm still because Valdez is like a glamorous movie star with a sex appeal, implied romantic relationship/love triangle -has the intrigue of a real movie -mock interview -still have a reach without an actual movie -preserve an idea of a narrative, creates stars/glamour -Chicano Cinema, 1976 -with last dying breath he writes Chicano Cinema -pile of burning money on the ground -stereotypes with Chicanos in movies - gangs, violence -image has many suggestions to gang violence -also shows that Chicano cinema is dead before it’s even come into being