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Psychology Week 7 Notes

by: Aneeqa Akhtar

Psychology Week 7 Notes PSY 2301

Aneeqa Akhtar

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Hi! This week we covered different types of memory and mnemonics.
Introduction to Psychology
Noah Sasson
Class Notes
Psychology, memory
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aneeqa Akhtar on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2301 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Noah Sasson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.

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Date Created: 02/26/16
Aneeqa Akhtar February 24 , 2016 Chapter 8: Memory  Memory: the persistence of learning and knowledge over time  Few acts of cognition do not involve memory o Problem solving, decision making, classifying information, and even habituation in infants  Memory is imperfect and prone to mistakes. It is NOT a videotape  Memory as information processing o Computer metaphor – thinking like a computer  Have a hardware source, have a processing power  Find a file, save to disk, read from disk  Memory involves three main stages:  Acquisition (encoding): getting information into your brain  Storage: retaining information over time  Retrieval: getting information back out of the memory system  External events -> (sensory input) -> sensory memory -> (attention to important or novel information) -> short-term memory -> (encoding) -> long-term memory  Types of Memory:  Sensory Memory: fleeting/immediate or initial recording of information  Working Memory: briefly holds information to “work-on”, has to be encoded to go to long term memory  Long Term Memory: relatively permanent and limitless store house of information o Covers a span that stretches from about 30 seconds ago to your earliest memories  The process of encoding involves:  Working memory: typically lost very quickly without rehearsal o Limited by time o Limited by capacity  7 items, +/- 2  Can be numbers, words, letters, names  Primacy vs Recency Effect: we remember things that happened first and most recently  Mnemonics: techniques to memorize new material  Depth of Processing: focusing on meaning leads to better memory than focusing on superficialities o Ex: “is this printed in capital letters?” vs “Would the word fit in a sentence?”  Maintenance Rehearsal: repetition of material without thinking about its meaning o Trying to remember a phone number o Exam cramming seconds prior to the start of a test  Chunking: combining materials into independent chunks, can be visual or verbal  Narrative Chaining: material is woven into a meaningful story  Key-Word Method; using imagery during encoding to aid retrieval  Songs and Rhymes: alphabet song  First Letter Mnemonics: o Roy G Biv o PEMDAS  Context-Dependent Effects: Aneeqa Akhtar February 24 , 2016  Words heard underwater are best recalled underwater  Words heard on land are best recalled on land  Meaningfulness: extent to which new information evokes associations with information already in the long term memory  It’s easier to learn material when you have knowledge of the related material  Meaningfulness resides in the leaner, not in the material to be learned  Storage  Long-term storage: our capacity for storing memories appears to be limitless, but we do not store everything indefinitely o Forgetting occurs as new information interferes with retrieval o We fill in gaps in our memory, and even create memories of events that never occurred o Memory is not a videotape  Types of long term memory  Implicit Memory: memories we do not recall consciously; occur without awareness o Ex: procedural memory (riding a bike, driving), classical conditioning  Explicit Memory: conscious memory, can be triggered by a direct question and purposely recalled o Episodic memory: memory for specific events  What did you eat for breakfast? o Semantic memory: general knowledge and facts  Evidence for distinction: types of amnesia o Retrograde (explicit) vs anterograde (implicit) o Retrograde Amnesia: lose access to autobiographical info o Anterograde Amnesia: difficulty remembering short term things  Flashbulb Memories: vivid memories from emotional events  Long term memory in infancy  Habituation paradigm: short term recognition memory  Sucking paradigm: o 1 month olds show preference for familiar nursery rhyme 3 days later o Evidence of fetal memory  Brovee-Collier’s onjugate reinforcement procedure  Babies kick more to have the mobile move  Recognition: the ability to identify previously encountered info  Multiple choice question  Recall: the ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material  Fill in the bank questions  Why do we forget?  Forgetting can occur because of a breakdown in any of the three stages  Forgetting due to inadequate encoding: encoding failure is when information never makes it to our long term memory  Forgetting due to storage failure: forget as time passes; forgetting curve  Memory decay: when memory traces become weaker; fading or weakening of memories Aneeqa Akhtar th February 24 , 2016  Retroactive Interference: tendency for new memories to interfere with retrieval of old memories  Déjà vu: unexplained feeling of familiarity  Tip of the tongue: feeling that a memory is available but not quite retrieval  Memory Construction  Misinformation Effect: after exposure to information that is not true, people tend to remember it that way o This suggests that memories can be created, even when an event did not occur


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