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by: Alex Phillips

NOTES225.pdf History 1020

Alex Phillips
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

Notes from Thursday of this week of class.
World History II
Cari L Casteel
Class Notes
Congo, African Colonies, Triple Alliance, Triple Entente, King Leopold II, Berlin Conference, David Livingston, Henry Morton Stanley, Rubber, Congo Reform Association
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/26/16
NOTES 2.25 THE CONGO - Congo is Belgium claimed - David Livingston: one of the first Europeans to explore central Africa o Gone for 6 years (supposed to only leave or 2) o His plan was to go from Cape Town to Zambia o He finds Victoria falls (Mosi-oa-Tunya: the smoke that thunders) o Important b/c he is the first to map out central Africa o After he finds Vic. Falls he disappears - Henry Morton Stanley tries to find Livingston o Finds him somewhere near Tanzania o Kind Leopold III of Belgium paid and asked Stanley to help him get land o Draws up a treaty to give chiefs in Africa and have them sign it, but the African chiefs don’t understand what it says b/c of the language barrier BERLIN CONFERENCE - Leopold III is allowed to keep the Congo as a colony o Called the Congo Free State - He promises to uphold the rules of the conference like having free trade etc. - The Congo is the sole property of King Leopold III not Belgium NATURAL RESOURCES - rubber trees everywhere )at first rubber was not very important so it did not make the king any money) - ivory - the colony is not making money from resources (rubber and ivory) o it is expensive to set up a colony o effect: needed labor for almost not cost, no more free trade - industrial revolution produced bicycles which increased the need for rubber (for tires) o John Boyd Dunlap invented the rubber tire o Now Leopold wants his colony to produce as much rubber as possible so it starts making money EFFECT OF RUBBER PRODUCTION - if workers didn’t meet quota o whipped o wife raped or punished o cut off hands to save bullets - this was ok b/c it wasn’t being brought to the public’s attention - millions of African’s in the Congo killed (over half of the population) REPORT OF CONGO CONDITIONS - George Washington Williams reported on how people of the Congo were being treated by the Europeans - Group of journalists formed Congo Reform Association so people would become aware of the horrific conditions o “Heart of Darkness” - book written about conditions o “Kind Leopold’s Soliloquy” – Mark Twain  photographs show truth that the treatment was not upheld in the way the Berlin Conference discussed WHAT WAS DONE? - the colony went from being Leopold’s to all of Belgium’s o they were being “supervised” now - 1908 not called the Belgium Congo - justified the harsh treatment as for the sake of civilization COLONIZATION IN AFRICA - 1914: 90% of Africa was European colonies - Ethiopia not a colony b/c they bought guns to defend themselves o They also traded with Europe EUROPEAN TENSIONS - Kruger Telegram: Germans sent telegram to Boers saying they will help fight the British b/c they have a mutual hatred - Result: Britain and France decided to stay out of each other’s land to help each other in case Germany tries to steal their colonies in Africa - Russia joins in this alliance with Britain and France: Triple Entente - Germany talks to Italy and Austria Hungary o They from the Triple Alliance as protection against the Triple Entente - Moroccan Crisis o Kaiser Wilem II says Germany will help Morocco be independent from France o To keep a war from happening, Algeciras Conference help where Teddy Roosevelt mediated between France and Germany o The effect was that France’s and Britain’s alliance grew stronger


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