Health Notes Week of 2/22-2/26
Health Notes Week of 2/22-2/26 HEA 102-010
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HEA 102-010 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dina Hayduk in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Health/Wellness in Health Sciences at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
February 22, 2016 Diabetes - Disorder of endocrine or metabolic system characterized by hyperglycemia, deficits in insulin production - 7% of population in US have it - 1/3 don’t know they have it - Sugar not processed correctly - Glucose = sugar - Insulin gives us energy which is released from the pancreas Major Organs Involved: Liver- releases glucose into bloodstream Pancreas – releases insulin - Insulin helps glucose pass into cells where it can be used as energy Functions of Insulin - Increase in glucose uptake to cells - Increase storage of glucose - Decrease breakdown of proteins - Lowered blood sugar 2 types of Diabetes 1. Type I a. Insulin dependent (normally diagnosed as juvenile) b. Usually develops during childhood of young adulthood c. Pancreatic beta cell (makes insulin) destruction *not enough insulin = deficit = increase levels of glucose in the blood = inadequate levels of glucose in cells Symptoms - Always tired - Frequent urination - Thirst - Blurred eye sight - Thrush Treated with insulin 2. Type II a. Previously called adult onset diabetes b. Now seen in much younger population c. Pancreas continues to produce insulin but body becomes insulin resistant Lifestyle/ Risk Factors Smoking High blood pressure Overweight (biggest factor) Increase in high fat and cholesterol Sedentary lifestyle d. Glucose and insulin levels rise e. Can have little to no symptoms (leads to late diagnosing) 1. Live up to 10 years without knowing 2. Early diagnosing can lead it to be reversed f. Caused by insulin resistant g. Pancreas keeps producing insulin but eventually stops h. About 90-95% of all diabetes cases 1. Rising in parallel with obesity levels 2. Caused by visceral fat and lack of physical activity are strong indicators of risk Symptoms Frequent urination Thirst Blurred eye sight Thrush Pre-Diabetes - Causes blood glucose levels to be higher than normal but not high enough for diagnosis - 1 in 4 Americans Metabolic Syndrome - Conditions increase risk for developing diabetes - Waist circumference (greater than or equal to 40” for men) (greater than or equal to 35” for women) - Blood pressure (greater than or equal to 130 systolic) (greater than or equal to 85 diastolic) Gestational Diabetes - Women with history of gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing diabetes in the next 10-20 years Hypoglycemia - Too low blood sugar - Treated with eating foods Physical Activity - Any bodily movement produced that substantially increased energy How have you taken physical activity out of your life? - Lack of directed activities - Going outside - Driving Physical Inactivity What we know? - Sedentary (not moving) lifestyles are linked to dramatic increase in obesity, diabetes, and other chronic disease (hypokinetic) - Physical activity and physical fitness (hyperkinetic) February 24, 2016 Physical Fitness - Movement for the “health” of it Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise - Physical benefits if improved functioning of body systems - Cognitive benefit processing information more quickly - Psychological and emotional reduces stress levels and influencing moods Components of Fitness Health Cardiovascular Endurance - Improvement of heart and vascular system - “Fountain of Youth” Perform Cardio “test” - Use large muscles - Rhythmic pattern - For a long time (duration) - 20-30 min (continuous) - Heart rate raised (intensity) - Frequently enough (frequency) Heart Rate - 30 minutes/ 5 days a week of moderate activity Or - 20 minutes/ 3 days a week of vigorous activity “Talk test” - If you can’t talk when working out, you are working to hard - If you can sing when working out, you aren’t working enough Surgeon General says… - 10,000 steps/ day F.I.T.T. - Frequency (how often) - Intensity (how hard) - Time (duration) - Type Muscular Strength and Endurance Strength – weight at one time Endurance – lower weight with more reps Development - Progression/overload - Specificity of training (work opposite muscles) - Individuality *muscle distribution and amount of testosterone is reason some people progress quicker than others Muscles that are redder have more blood through going through it, muscles that are less red/ white have less blood going through them. February 26, 2016 Flexibility Is: the range of motion around a joint or series of joints Is not: the same word as warm-up, warm-up is still needed before stretching Types: 1. Static (most recommended) a. Hold and stretch for 15-30 seconds each 2. Passive (trained partner needed) 3. PNF (trained partner needed) 4. Ballistic (bouncing) When do you know you’re warmed up? 1. Feel warm 2. Sweating starts *warm-up affect subsides after 10mins Cool Down 1. When you stop working out keep moving after to lower heart rate slowly What does blood pressure measure? Force against your arteries walls 1. Systolic- higher number (heart contracts) 2. Diastolic- heart at rest Hypertension 1. Forceful enough to damage artery walls 2. Can weaken and scar the arteries 3. Makes heart work harder 4. “silent killer” *can cause heart attack, strokes, kidney disease, peripheral artery disease, and blindness Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Any disease involves heart and or blood vessels, also called coronary artery disease 1. Most common type is atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries Stroke 1. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when blood flow to the brain or part of the brain is blocked F. (Smiling or dropping of smile) A. (arms) C. (communication/confusion/ coordination) E. (emergency) Risk Factors Modifiable - High cholesterol - High blood pressure - Weight - Stress - Food eaten Non-modifiable - Age - Scarring already present - Plaque - Gender - African Americans and Asians tend to have more of a risk - Genetics Golden Hour - Hour where symptoms begin till you get professional help AED - Automated External Defibrillator - Doesn’t make a heart start beating again - Don’t have to be trained - During the hearts, v-fib