Adolescent Psychology 2/22-2/26
Adolescent Psychology 2/22-2/26 Psy 120-020
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 120-020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Raquel Akillas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Moral Development Freud’s Theory We are not born with morality Born pure ID Pleasure seeking component of personality “just do it” “I want this now” Age 2 Ego develops Sense of self Can make own decisions now I am my own person Age 5 Superego develops Do right thing, morality tells you if you’re a good/bad person Child internalizes parent’s standards of right and wrong Piaget’s Theory Observed children playing marbles and asked: About the rules and changing them Cheating? Punishments Age 4-12 Morality is a qualitative difference in thinking Piaget’s Teacup Question Little boy helping his mom, accidentally breaks 15 teacups Another boy, is told he cannot have a cookie until after dinner. He reaches up on counter to steal a cookie before dinner and breaks one teacup. Which boy was naughtier? Kids choose the boy who broke 15 teacups because he broke more teacups. Even though stealing a cookie and breaking a teacup is worse. Two stages 1. Heteronomous Morality a. Right or wrong b. Age 4-7 (before age of logic) c. Look at consequences of behavior d. Not intentions of actor e. Moral realism – rules and laws are made by god or adults. (unchangeable) f. Immanent Justice – if they are bad, they will be punished 2. Autonomous Morality a. Age 10-12 b. Think on their own c. Consider intentions of actor d. Rules and laws are created by man (can be changed) Lawrence Kohlberg Heinz steals the drug – Moral dilemma Heinz had a wife who was dying of a rare form of cancer Only solution was a pharmacist who came up with a drug $1000 to create drug but pharmacist charged $3000 Heinz didn’t have enough money to pay for drug, asked pharmacist if he’d give him the drug for free Pharmacist said no Heinz broke in and stole drug Was Heinz right or wrong to steal drug? Not interested in the “morality” of their answers Focused on the reasoning behind their answer “Why?” they thought the behavior was right or wrong Showed no reaction to their initial answer Development occurs which stimulated to think about your reasoning 3 levels of Moral Reasoning 1. Pre-Conventional Reasoning a. Egocentric – only consider the consequences for them, “how will this affect me” b. Extrinsic motivation to act c. Typical of kids to age 10 Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Black and white Wrong because it is wrong Stage 2: Exchange of Favors “What’s in it or me?” “Is it worth the risk of getting caught? 2. Conventional Reasoning a. Think about society society/ others b. Make decisions based on other people’s feelings and standards c. Want to fit in with others d. Extrinsically motivated to act 1. Want feedback from others e. Typical of 10-20 years old Stage 3: Interpersonal Relations “Will others approve of me?” Want to please and impress others (smoking and charity) Stage 4: Law and Order All people must obey the law to have a peaceful “society” (drugs and stopping at stop signs) 3. Post-Conventional Reasoning a. Make decisions based on their own convictions b. Don’t care about how others would judge them c. Intrinsically motivated to act d. Rarely reached before age 20 e. Only a few people get to this stage Stage 5: Social Contract Activist Laws are relative (situational) Stage 6: Universal Principles Hardly anyone gets here Live by a few extract principles Ex. Monk, Gandhi, MLK Carol Gilligan Kohlberg was biased against women - Kohlberg studied boys Women think in terms of caring and relationships - Stage 3 when they stop Men think in terms of justice and rules - Stage 4 when they stop Women want to please people Feminist Educational Implications Let teens formulate their own ideas of right and wrong Values Clarification Approach - Adult plays as facilitator - Help the teen to define their own values - Teaches teens to respect other’s values Role Playing Exercise - Promote empathy and perspective taking Play Devil’s Advocate - Intentionally take the minority view Socratic Teaching - Give teens questions, not answers Service Learning Programs Teen applies skill they are learning in school to community Direct Service - Literacy programs - Elderly, sick, disabled, poor , immigrants Indirect Service - Food, clothing drive - Fund-raiser - Neighborhood beautification Advocacy - Political organization - Educating public about a problem Teens who participate: - Improved grades - More motivated in school - Set more goals - Demonstrate improved self-esteem - Feels less alienated Social Cognition How a teen thinks about others Advanced Perspective Taking - Understand other’s thoughts and feelings - Interacting with other people - Those better at perspective taking tend to me more popular Depends on: - Trust in friendships (relating to each other’s problems) - Exposure to different culture and SES (socioeconomic status) backgrounds - Adults who foster interaction - Teen Relationships Sexual Behavior Teens get a mixed message Media promotes sex - TV - Movies Parents deny it exists Religion forbids it Boys and girls are equally sexually active Why do teens have sex? - Rite of passage - Forbidden act - Equate sex with adulthood - Some feel required to do it to keep relationship Sex 50% had sex by age 17 USA highest rate of teen pregnancies - Keeps going out - Because of lack of education Unplanned Pregnancy Lack of Fertility Education - Hot tub myth - Pulling out myth - Rhythm method (“period sex”) Lack of Contraceptive Education - Banana demo Lack of Contraceptive Consistency - Miss pill Embarrassment of Purchase Communication Skills - Ask about STDs - Partners - Assumption other person is protected Cognitive Development - Personal fable - Optimistic Bias - “it won’t happen to me” Planned Teen Pregnancy Need to feel loved Need to control relationship - Creates resentment, avoidance Need to feel “grown up” - Need for attention from family, friends, significant other Avoid making an academic/career choice - Lack of career/ academic skills Comprehensive Sexuality Education Start in elementary school Teach detailed information of sexual development (anatomy) Sexual behavior - STDs - Contraception - Abortion - Sexual orientation - Masturbation Provide easy access to contraception Interpersonal Relationships Friendships - Form our personality Teach - Appropriate self-disclosure - Art of debate - Perspective taking/empathy - Human condition - Dissolves personal fable
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