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PSYC 1000 - Week 7 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Week 7 Notes Psyc 1000-04

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Lecture and Reading notes
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 02/26/16
PSYC Notes Week 7 February 22­26 CHAPTER 8 Textbook Notes Studying and Encoding Memories (p. 317­337) ­ Memory: the persistence of learning over time ­ Three measures of retention 1. Recall: the ability to retrieve information learned earlier (fill in the  blank) 2. Recognition: the ability to identify terms learned earlier (multiple  choice) 3. Relearning: learning material more quickly when seeing it multiple  times ­ We remember more than we can recall ­ Information­processing model: process of how memories work 1. Encoding: get information into our brain 2. Storage: retain information over time 3. Retrieval: getting information out of memory storage ­ Parallel processing: the tendency of our brains to process multiple things  simultaneously ­ Three­stage model of memory forming 1. Sensory memory ­ Explicit memories: facts and experiences that one consciously  knows ­ We encode explicit memories with effortful processing,  which requires attention and conscious  effort ­ Iconic memory: momentary sensory memory of visual  stimuli ­ Echoic memory: momentary sensory memory of auditory  stimuli ­ Involves the frontal lobes and the hippocampus ­ Implicit memories: learned skills or classically conditioned  associations (ex. information about time, space, and  frequency) ­ We encode implicit memories with automatic processing,  which is unconscious processing  ­ Involves the cerebellum and the basal ganglia 2. Short­term memory ­ Working memory: active processing while interpreting new  information and comparing it with remembered  information ­ Ability to recall 7 bits of information (+/­ 2) 3. Long­term memory ­ Effortful processing strategies ­ Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units (often  happens automatically) ­ Mnemonics: memory aids involving acronyms or imagery devices ­ Hierarchies: organizing information hierarchically into groups ­ Spacing effect: tendency to remember information better when encoding  is distributed over time ­ Testing effect: enhanced memory after retrieving information ­ Levels of processing ­ Shallow processing: encoding on a basic level based on the structure or  appearance of words ­ Deep processing: encoding semantically based on the meaning of words  ­ Leads to better retention than shallow processing ­ Self­reference effect: tendency to remember information that relates to  ourselves ­ Amount remembered depends on time spent learning as well as making it meaningful for deep processing ­ Memory storage ­ Our brains have essentially limitless long­term storage, however the  information is not stored in specific, single locations in the brain ­ Hippocampus: part of the limbic system involved in memory processing ­ Memory consolidation: storage of long­term memory; involves  information passing through the hippocampus to then be stored somewhere else ­ Emotions' effect on memory processing ­ Emotions can solidify certain events in the brain, while disrupting memory for neutral events ­ The amygdala responds to stress by creating stronger memories ­ Significantly stressful events can form permanent memories ­ Flashbulb memory: a clear memory of an emotionally significant  moment or event ­ Synaptic changes ­ Learning changes your brain ­ Long­term potentiation: an increase in a cell's firing potential  after brief, rapid stimulation of memory­circuit connections ­ Physical basis for learning and memory ­ Memory retrieval ­ Memories are held in storage by webs of associations ­ Retrieval cues: information associated with information trying to  be remembered ­ Priming: the activation of particular associations in memory ­ Encoding specificity principle: contexts specific to a memory will be the  most effective in helping us recall it (context­dependent memory) ­ Mood­congruent memory: tendency to recall experiences that are  consistent with one's good or bad mood ­ Serial­position effect: tendency to recall best the first and last items of a  list ­ Recency effect: tendency to easily recall the last item of a list ­ Immediately after learning ­ Primacy effect: tendency to easily recall the first item of a list ­ Over time, trying to recall information Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Improving Memory (p. 338­353) ­ Forgetting ­ Anterograde amnesia: inability to form new memories ­ Retrograde amnesia: inability to retrieve information from one's past ­ Reasons for forgetting ­ Encoding failure ­ Storage decay ­ Retrieval failure ­ Interference ­ Proactive interference: prior learning disrupting the retrieval of  new information ­ Retroactive interference: new learning disrupting the recall of old information ­ Misinformation effect: when misleading information corrupts one's  memory of an event ­ Source amnesia: attributing an event that we have heard/read about/imagined to  the wrong source ­ Déja vu: familiarity with a stimulus without a clear idea of where we  encountered it before Brain Maturation and Infant Memory (p. 185­186) ­ Conscious recall from a young age is difficult although the brain is constantly  storing memory ­ Infantile amnesia: conscious memories almost never exist earlier than age 3 CHAPTER 9 Thinking (p. 355­369) ­ Cognition: mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering,  and communicating ­ Concept: a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people ­ Prototype: a mental image or example of a category ­ Problem solving ­ Algorithm: a methodological process that guarantees solving a problem ­ Insight: a sudden realization of a problem's solution ­ Confirmation bias: the tendency to seek out and favor information that supports  our preconceptions ­ Mental set: tendency to approach a problem with the mind­set of what has  worked previously ­ Decisions and Judgments ­ Intuition: effortless and immediate feeling or thought (vs. conscious reasoning) ­ Learned skills result in a habit of intuition ­ Intuition is adaptive, enabling quick reactions ­ Heuristics: mental shortcuts that enable snap judgments ­ Availability heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their  availability in memory; can mislead us to believe that certain events are more common  than they actually are ­ Framing: the way an issue is presented ­ Creativity: the ability to produce new and valuable ideas ­ Convergent thinking: narrowing problem solutions to determine the single best  solution ­ Divergent thinking: expanding the number of problem solutions  ­ Five components of creativity 1. Expertise (well­developed knowledge) 2. Imaginative thinking skills 3. A venturesome personality (risk­taking) 4. Intrinsic motivation 5. A creative environment Language and Thought (p. 370­383) ­ Language: spoken, written, or signed combinations of meaningful words  ­ Phoneme: smallest unit of sound ­ Morpheme: smallest unit of sound that carries meaning ­ Grammar: the system of rules that enables communication ­ Language development ­ Receptive language: a baby's ability to understand what is said to and  about them ­ Productive language: the ability to produce words ­ Babbling stage: stage of speech development in which an infant utters  sounds unrelated to the household language (~4 months  old) ­ One­word stage: when a child speaks mostly in single words (~1­2 yrs.) ­ Two­word stage: when a child speaks mostly in two­word statements (~2 yrs.) ­ Telegraphic speech: early speech that uses just nouns and verbs ­ Critical period: childhood ability to quickly learn language ­ Aphasia: language impairment ­ Broca's area: brain area that, when damaged, affects one's ability to  speak words ­ Wernicke's area: brain area that, when damaged, affects one's ability to  speak and comprehend meaningful words ­ Language processing involves many different functions of the brain ­ Linguistic determinism: Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way  we think ­ Language doesn't determine the way we think, it just influences it Costs of Self­Esteem (p. 600­601) ­ Excessive optimism can blind us to real risks ­ Optimism lessens before receiving feedback or after a traumatic event ­ People are often overconfident when most incompetent ­ Ignorance sustains self­confidence, leading to repeated mistakes Lecture Notes CHAPTER 8 Long­term memory ­ Unlimited capacity and duration ­ Once information is in long­term memory, it is there forever ­ Types ­ Explicit/declarative: conscious memories for facts and experiences that  we know and can state ­ Episodic: personal life events/experiences ­ Semantic: impersonal facts and general knowledge ­ Implicit/non­declarative: unconscious influence of past experience;  memory without conscious recollection ­ Doesn't follow sensory/short­term/long­term model ­ Procedural: how to perform routine/automatic tasks ­ Priming, classical conditioning Retrieval: getting information out of memory ­ Retrieval cues: stimuli that aid retrieval ­ Useful because information is stored in networks of associations ­ Spreading activation: waves spreading in mind about a concept that  activate other related concepts ­ Context­dependent memory: external cues/environment provides retrieval cues ­ State­dependent memory: internal state provides retrieval cues Reasons for forgetting ­ Failure to encode information initially ­ Storage decay: unused memories fade over time  ­ Reason for forgetting short­term memories ­ Displacement: new information kicking out old information ­ Reason for forgetting short­term memories ­ Retrieval failure: information is stored but there is difficulty accessing it ­ Reason for forgetting long­term memories ­ Evidence ­ Sometimes we remember things initially forgotten with the right  retrieval cues ­ Learning something then forgetting it results in re­learning the  information faster the second time (shows that memory of information is probably still  stored somewhere) ­ Ebbinghaus: discovered the forgetting curve ­ Forgetting curve: forgetting levels off (we forget about half very quickly  then we retain the rest for a long time) Constructing memories ­ Memories are recreations based on past events (contain biases, beliefs, and  expectations) ­ Memory is a constructive process because memory is subjective,  continually revised, and easily influenced ­ Schemas: abstract mental frameworks that organize information based on  expectations ­ Develop over time with repeated experience ­ Schema theory: we mold information to fit into our preexisting schemas ­ Influence what we notice and remember ­ Office experiment: subjects were likely to remember the office  supplies that were there, subjects falsely remembered items that were not there but are  usually found in offices, and subjects were less likely to remember items that do not  usually belong in offices ­ Misinformation effect: when misinformation influences memory ­ Memory is easily distorted by questions and suggestions ­ Eyewitness testimony ­ Loftus' traffic accident experiments: subjects asked about car  accident were more likely to report different speeds of cars when different adjectives  were used (a week later, the wording also affected the remembered severity of accident) ­ Visualizing events leads to remembering things that never happened ­ Traumatic memories can be repressed and then recovered ­ More likely to over­remember trauma than repress it ­ No good way to discern between true and false memories ­ Confidence and vividness do not necessarily indicate accuracy ­ Biological basis of memory ­ Synaptic changes ­ New synapse formed or existing synapses modified ­ Long­term potentiation (LTP): strengthening or sensitization of  existing synapses ­ Brain structures ­ Hippocampus: processes and transfers info from STM to LTM ­ Explicit memories ­ Infantile amnesia: inability to remember events prior to  the age of 3 (occurs because hippocampus  matures  late) ­ Frontal and temporal lobes ­ LTM storage ­ A single memory exists as a pattern of activation: the  memory exists in different parts of the brain ­ Cerebellum ­ Classical conditioning ­ Implicit memory ­ Basal ganglia ­ Procedural information ­ Implicit memory ­ Brain damage and amnesia ­ Retrograde amnesia: difficulty remembering the past ­ Results from general trauma to brain ­ Gradual recovery but events right before injury are not  recovered (they aren't processed) ­ Anterograde amnesia ­ Can't form new memories (can't transfer STM to LTM) ­ Remember new info for ~30 sec ­ Results from damage to hippocampus ­ H. M. suffered severe anterograde amnesia ­ Removal of hippocampus to control seizures ­ Amnesia affects explicit memory but not implicit memory  CHAPTER 9 ­ Thinking (cognition): manipulating and transforming information ­ Cognitive psychologists study thinking, knowing, remembering, and  communicating ­ Heuristics: mental shortcuts ­ Common cognitive errors ­ Confirmation bias: tendency to seek out evidence that confirms our beliefs and  failure to recognize information that disconfirms beliefs ­ We're more interested in proving ourselves right than finding the truth ­ Belief perseverance: tendency to cling to beliefs even when presented with  contradictory evidence ­ Leads to biased evaluation of evidence (takes more evidence to change  beliefs than it took to form those beliefs in the first place) ­ Overconfidence: tendency to be overconfident about our knowledge and  judgments ­ Dunning­Kruger effect: tendency for people who lack expertise to overestimate  their expertise, and for people who have that expertise to underestimate their knowledge  of it (ignorance leads to confidence) ­ Language ­ Essential characteristics: symbols and grammar ­ Grammar: rules for combining symbols in meaningful ways ­ Language development ­ First year ­ Babbling: meaningless syllable repetition (~4 months) ­ Over time, syllables not used in parent language will drop  out of the baby's babbling ­ Loss of ability to distinguish between foreign sounds ­ One­word stage (~1 year) ­ Receptive language: what babies can understand ­ Productive language: what babies can produce ­ Receptive develops before productive ­ Second year ­ Two­word stage ("telegraphic speech") ­ Follows grammatical rules ­ Overgeneralization of grammatical rules ("I eated") ­ Use of intonation/repetition to get points across ­ Language acquisition ­ Evidence that we are biologically predisposed to acquire language ­ Extremely quick rate of learning, method of learning is exposure ­ Not just imitation and reinforcement, but also creation of new  sentences (ex. overgeneralization of grammatical  rules) ­ Critical/sensitive period: childhood (until ~7­12 years) is a  critical period for language acquisition ­ Children lacking exposure to language early in life are  unable to learn language later in life ­ Deaf children ­ Feral children: children who grow up with little  human contact ­ People who learn additional languages in childhood are  more likely to master the language than  adults ­ Thinking and language ­ Thinking influences language ­ Linguistic relativity hypothesis: language influences thinking,  perception, and memory ­ We're better able to think about, notice, and remember something if we have a word for it ­ Bilingualism ­ Different languages influence quality of thought process ­ Advantages: cognitive flexibility, creativity, language skills, and  attention control ­ Doublespeak: language purposely used to manipulate thought CHAPTER 10 Intelligence: definitions vary ­ Possession of knowledge and ability to use it adaptively in different  environments ­ Ability to master info and skills needed to succeed in a particular culture ­ Collectivist theory: needs and desires of group take precedence over the  desires of the individual, individuals are more likely to define themselves based on the  cultures to which they belong ­ Individualist theory: needs and desires of the individual take precedence  over the desires of the culture they belong to ­ Kpelle people of Liberia: sorted a big group of tools and foods into  groups of a food paired with the tools used to harvest it (the "wrong answer" in the  Western knowledge test) ­ Problem­solving skills, ability to adapt to new situations and learn from  everyday experiences ­ Is intelligence one general ability or multiple specific abilities? Two theories: ­ General intelligence: one general ability ­ Multiple intelligences: many dimensions of intelligence that are  relatively underrated ­ Intelligence tests ­ Binet­Simon Scale: was developed to identify students who needed extra help, provided a score in the form of a mental age estimate ­ Reasoning, thinking, and problem­solving skills ­ Mental age: level of performance associated with a particular  chronological age ­ Binet's concerns: test could be misused and assume the test  results would be mistaken for a child's capabilities ­ Stanford­Binet: adaption of Binet­Simon scale for use in the US ­ Developed by Terman ­ Added questions to measure adult intelligence ­ Intelligence Quotient formula (IQ): (Mental Age)/(Chronological  Age) x 100 ­ Misuse: result of intelligence tests were reflected as person's  abilities (led to belief that some people were intellectually  inferior)


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