PSYC 1000 - Week 7 Notes
PSYC 1000 - Week 7 Notes Psyc 1000-04
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
PSYC Notes Week 7 February 2226 CHAPTER 8 Textbook Notes Studying and Encoding Memories (p. 317337) Memory: the persistence of learning over time Three measures of retention 1. Recall: the ability to retrieve information learned earlier (fill in the blank) 2. Recognition: the ability to identify terms learned earlier (multiple choice) 3. Relearning: learning material more quickly when seeing it multiple times We remember more than we can recall Informationprocessing model: process of how memories work 1. Encoding: get information into our brain 2. Storage: retain information over time 3. Retrieval: getting information out of memory storage Parallel processing: the tendency of our brains to process multiple things simultaneously Threestage model of memory forming 1. Sensory memory Explicit memories: facts and experiences that one consciously knows We encode explicit memories with effortful processing, which requires attention and conscious effort Iconic memory: momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli Echoic memory: momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli Involves the frontal lobes and the hippocampus Implicit memories: learned skills or classically conditioned associations (ex. information about time, space, and frequency) We encode implicit memories with automatic processing, which is unconscious processing Involves the cerebellum and the basal ganglia 2. Shortterm memory Working memory: active processing while interpreting new information and comparing it with remembered information Ability to recall 7 bits of information (+/ 2) 3. Longterm memory Effortful processing strategies Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units (often happens automatically) Mnemonics: memory aids involving acronyms or imagery devices Hierarchies: organizing information hierarchically into groups Spacing effect: tendency to remember information better when encoding is distributed over time Testing effect: enhanced memory after retrieving information Levels of processing Shallow processing: encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words Deep processing: encoding semantically based on the meaning of words Leads to better retention than shallow processing Selfreference effect: tendency to remember information that relates to ourselves Amount remembered depends on time spent learning as well as making it meaningful for deep processing Memory storage Our brains have essentially limitless longterm storage, however the information is not stored in specific, single locations in the brain Hippocampus: part of the limbic system involved in memory processing Memory consolidation: storage of longterm memory; involves information passing through the hippocampus to then be stored somewhere else Emotions' effect on memory processing Emotions can solidify certain events in the brain, while disrupting memory for neutral events The amygdala responds to stress by creating stronger memories Significantly stressful events can form permanent memories Flashbulb memory: a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event Synaptic changes Learning changes your brain Longterm potentiation: an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation of memorycircuit connections Physical basis for learning and memory Memory retrieval Memories are held in storage by webs of associations Retrieval cues: information associated with information trying to be remembered Priming: the activation of particular associations in memory Encoding specificity principle: contexts specific to a memory will be the most effective in helping us recall it (contextdependent memory) Moodcongruent memory: tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's good or bad mood Serialposition effect: tendency to recall best the first and last items of a list Recency effect: tendency to easily recall the last item of a list Immediately after learning Primacy effect: tendency to easily recall the first item of a list Over time, trying to recall information Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Improving Memory (p. 338353) Forgetting Anterograde amnesia: inability to form new memories Retrograde amnesia: inability to retrieve information from one's past Reasons for forgetting Encoding failure Storage decay Retrieval failure Interference Proactive interference: prior learning disrupting the retrieval of new information Retroactive interference: new learning disrupting the recall of old information Misinformation effect: when misleading information corrupts one's memory of an event Source amnesia: attributing an event that we have heard/read about/imagined to the wrong source Déja vu: familiarity with a stimulus without a clear idea of where we encountered it before Brain Maturation and Infant Memory (p. 185186) Conscious recall from a young age is difficult although the brain is constantly storing memory Infantile amnesia: conscious memories almost never exist earlier than age 3 CHAPTER 9 Thinking (p. 355369) Cognition: mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Concept: a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people Prototype: a mental image or example of a category Problem solving Algorithm: a methodological process that guarantees solving a problem Insight: a sudden realization of a problem's solution Confirmation bias: the tendency to seek out and favor information that supports our preconceptions Mental set: tendency to approach a problem with the mindset of what has worked previously Decisions and Judgments Intuition: effortless and immediate feeling or thought (vs. conscious reasoning) Learned skills result in a habit of intuition Intuition is adaptive, enabling quick reactions Heuristics: mental shortcuts that enable snap judgments Availability heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; can mislead us to believe that certain events are more common than they actually are Framing: the way an issue is presented Creativity: the ability to produce new and valuable ideas Convergent thinking: narrowing problem solutions to determine the single best solution Divergent thinking: expanding the number of problem solutions Five components of creativity 1. Expertise (welldeveloped knowledge) 2. Imaginative thinking skills 3. A venturesome personality (risktaking) 4. Intrinsic motivation 5. A creative environment Language and Thought (p. 370383) Language: spoken, written, or signed combinations of meaningful words Phoneme: smallest unit of sound Morpheme: smallest unit of sound that carries meaning Grammar: the system of rules that enables communication Language development Receptive language: a baby's ability to understand what is said to and about them Productive language: the ability to produce words Babbling stage: stage of speech development in which an infant utters sounds unrelated to the household language (~4 months old) Oneword stage: when a child speaks mostly in single words (~12 yrs.) Twoword stage: when a child speaks mostly in twoword statements (~2 yrs.) Telegraphic speech: early speech that uses just nouns and verbs Critical period: childhood ability to quickly learn language Aphasia: language impairment Broca's area: brain area that, when damaged, affects one's ability to speak words Wernicke's area: brain area that, when damaged, affects one's ability to speak and comprehend meaningful words Language processing involves many different functions of the brain Linguistic determinism: Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think Language doesn't determine the way we think, it just influences it Costs of SelfEsteem (p. 600601) Excessive optimism can blind us to real risks Optimism lessens before receiving feedback or after a traumatic event People are often overconfident when most incompetent Ignorance sustains selfconfidence, leading to repeated mistakes Lecture Notes CHAPTER 8 Longterm memory Unlimited capacity and duration Once information is in longterm memory, it is there forever Types Explicit/declarative: conscious memories for facts and experiences that we know and can state Episodic: personal life events/experiences Semantic: impersonal facts and general knowledge Implicit/nondeclarative: unconscious influence of past experience; memory without conscious recollection Doesn't follow sensory/shortterm/longterm model Procedural: how to perform routine/automatic tasks Priming, classical conditioning Retrieval: getting information out of memory Retrieval cues: stimuli that aid retrieval Useful because information is stored in networks of associations Spreading activation: waves spreading in mind about a concept that activate other related concepts Contextdependent memory: external cues/environment provides retrieval cues Statedependent memory: internal state provides retrieval cues Reasons for forgetting Failure to encode information initially Storage decay: unused memories fade over time Reason for forgetting shortterm memories Displacement: new information kicking out old information Reason for forgetting shortterm memories Retrieval failure: information is stored but there is difficulty accessing it Reason for forgetting longterm memories Evidence Sometimes we remember things initially forgotten with the right retrieval cues Learning something then forgetting it results in relearning the information faster the second time (shows that memory of information is probably still stored somewhere) Ebbinghaus: discovered the forgetting curve Forgetting curve: forgetting levels off (we forget about half very quickly then we retain the rest for a long time) Constructing memories Memories are recreations based on past events (contain biases, beliefs, and expectations) Memory is a constructive process because memory is subjective, continually revised, and easily influenced Schemas: abstract mental frameworks that organize information based on expectations Develop over time with repeated experience Schema theory: we mold information to fit into our preexisting schemas Influence what we notice and remember Office experiment: subjects were likely to remember the office supplies that were there, subjects falsely remembered items that were not there but are usually found in offices, and subjects were less likely to remember items that do not usually belong in offices Misinformation effect: when misinformation influences memory Memory is easily distorted by questions and suggestions Eyewitness testimony Loftus' traffic accident experiments: subjects asked about car accident were more likely to report different speeds of cars when different adjectives were used (a week later, the wording also affected the remembered severity of accident) Visualizing events leads to remembering things that never happened Traumatic memories can be repressed and then recovered More likely to overremember trauma than repress it No good way to discern between true and false memories Confidence and vividness do not necessarily indicate accuracy Biological basis of memory Synaptic changes New synapse formed or existing synapses modified Longterm potentiation (LTP): strengthening or sensitization of existing synapses Brain structures Hippocampus: processes and transfers info from STM to LTM Explicit memories Infantile amnesia: inability to remember events prior to the age of 3 (occurs because hippocampus matures late) Frontal and temporal lobes LTM storage A single memory exists as a pattern of activation: the memory exists in different parts of the brain Cerebellum Classical conditioning Implicit memory Basal ganglia Procedural information Implicit memory Brain damage and amnesia Retrograde amnesia: difficulty remembering the past Results from general trauma to brain Gradual recovery but events right before injury are not recovered (they aren't processed) Anterograde amnesia Can't form new memories (can't transfer STM to LTM) Remember new info for ~30 sec Results from damage to hippocampus H. M. suffered severe anterograde amnesia Removal of hippocampus to control seizures Amnesia affects explicit memory but not implicit memory CHAPTER 9 Thinking (cognition): manipulating and transforming information Cognitive psychologists study thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Heuristics: mental shortcuts Common cognitive errors Confirmation bias: tendency to seek out evidence that confirms our beliefs and failure to recognize information that disconfirms beliefs We're more interested in proving ourselves right than finding the truth Belief perseverance: tendency to cling to beliefs even when presented with contradictory evidence Leads to biased evaluation of evidence (takes more evidence to change beliefs than it took to form those beliefs in the first place) Overconfidence: tendency to be overconfident about our knowledge and judgments DunningKruger effect: tendency for people who lack expertise to overestimate their expertise, and for people who have that expertise to underestimate their knowledge of it (ignorance leads to confidence) Language Essential characteristics: symbols and grammar Grammar: rules for combining symbols in meaningful ways Language development First year Babbling: meaningless syllable repetition (~4 months) Over time, syllables not used in parent language will drop out of the baby's babbling Loss of ability to distinguish between foreign sounds Oneword stage (~1 year) Receptive language: what babies can understand Productive language: what babies can produce Receptive develops before productive Second year Twoword stage ("telegraphic speech") Follows grammatical rules Overgeneralization of grammatical rules ("I eated") Use of intonation/repetition to get points across Language acquisition Evidence that we are biologically predisposed to acquire language Extremely quick rate of learning, method of learning is exposure Not just imitation and reinforcement, but also creation of new sentences (ex. overgeneralization of grammatical rules) Critical/sensitive period: childhood (until ~712 years) is a critical period for language acquisition Children lacking exposure to language early in life are unable to learn language later in life Deaf children Feral children: children who grow up with little human contact People who learn additional languages in childhood are more likely to master the language than adults Thinking and language Thinking influences language Linguistic relativity hypothesis: language influences thinking, perception, and memory We're better able to think about, notice, and remember something if we have a word for it Bilingualism Different languages influence quality of thought process Advantages: cognitive flexibility, creativity, language skills, and attention control Doublespeak: language purposely used to manipulate thought CHAPTER 10 Intelligence: definitions vary Possession of knowledge and ability to use it adaptively in different environments Ability to master info and skills needed to succeed in a particular culture Collectivist theory: needs and desires of group take precedence over the desires of the individual, individuals are more likely to define themselves based on the cultures to which they belong Individualist theory: needs and desires of the individual take precedence over the desires of the culture they belong to Kpelle people of Liberia: sorted a big group of tools and foods into groups of a food paired with the tools used to harvest it (the "wrong answer" in the Western knowledge test) Problemsolving skills, ability to adapt to new situations and learn from everyday experiences Is intelligence one general ability or multiple specific abilities? Two theories: General intelligence: one general ability Multiple intelligences: many dimensions of intelligence that are relatively underrated Intelligence tests BinetSimon Scale: was developed to identify students who needed extra help, provided a score in the form of a mental age estimate Reasoning, thinking, and problemsolving skills Mental age: level of performance associated with a particular chronological age Binet's concerns: test could be misused and assume the test results would be mistaken for a child's capabilities StanfordBinet: adaption of BinetSimon scale for use in the US Developed by Terman Added questions to measure adult intelligence Intelligence Quotient formula (IQ): (Mental Age)/(Chronological Age) x 100 Misuse: result of intelligence tests were reflected as person's abilities (led to belief that some people were intellectually inferior)
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