Bio Anthropology Lecture 10 Notes
Bio Anthropology Lecture 10 Notes ANTH1013 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by pcoliver96 on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH1013 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Lucas Delezene in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Anthropology in ANTH at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 – Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Bio Anthropology: Lecture 10 Notes (notes going towards exam 2) What is osteology? -science of studying bones -composition -structure -development -functional anatomy -relationship to other anatomical units Skeletal functions -support: provides a scaffolding to support soft tissue -protection: provides a hard, armor shielding soft tissues -ex: brain -joints are shock absorbers, shield body from high impacts -function: bones act as levers or struts, pulled upon by muscles to produce movement (locomotion) -red blood cell & marrow production and storage: occurs in long bones, in the layers of the skull, pelvic bones, and ribs -hemopoiesis = production of RBCs -mineral “bank”: reservoirs of minerals to to be tapped by bodies -pregnant women deficient in calcium will absorb own bone to nourish fetus -energy reserve: adipose tissue stores in marrow as well Anatomical planes & directional terms -sagittal plane: cuts the body into left and right halves -medial: moving towards the midline -lateral: moving away from the midline -coronal plane: cuts the body into front and back halves -anterior: moving towards the front -posterior: moving towards the back -transverse plane: cuts the body into top and bottom halves -superior: moving upwards -inferior: moving downwards University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 – Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Anatomical planes & directional terms: appendicular skeleton -appendicular skeleton: arms & legs -distal: moving away from the body -proximal: moving towards the body Categorizing the 206 bones of the human body -long bones: large tubular bones of the limbs with articular ends (6 pairs, 12 total) -short bones: like long bones, with tubular shafts and articular ends, but much smaller (58 total) -flat bones: thin, wide bones for protection and muscle attachment (35 total) -not tubular -ex: ribs, sternum, etc. -irregular bones: blocky or chunky depending on the function the bone performs (65 infracranial and many cranial bones) -ex: vertebrae -sesamoid bone: a short bone embedded within a tendon (increases mechanical advantage) -sesamoid = sesame seed-like -most famous sesamoid bone is the patella (kneecap) Skull -postcranial (infracranial) -axial skeleton: vertebrae (including sacrum and coccyx), sternum, ribs -upper limb (forelimb): scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, wrist, hand -lower limb (hindlimb): pelvis, femur, tibia, fibula, ankle, foot Bones of the skull -single (unpaired): frontal, occipital, sphenoid, mandible, ethmoid, vomer -paired: parietal, temporal, maxilla, nasal, zygomatic, lacrimal, palatine, inferior nasal concha, malleus, incus, stapes Categories of teeth -maxillary teeth: teeth along the top of the human mouth – rest along the upper jawbone, or maxilla, and have roots that extend into the upper jawbone resting near the maxillary sinuses University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 – Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene -mandibular teeth: mandibular canines are those lower teeth that articulate with the mesial aspect of the upper canine Skeleton develops from an embryonic precursor that’s made of cartilage -cartilage: more prevalent in embryonic skeleton than in an adult -bone replaces cartilage in fetal and childhood periods Basic parts of a long bone -epiphysis: articular ends of a bone -diaphysis: the shaft of a bone -epiphysis: articular ends of a bone -at birth, the diaphysis and epiphysis are separated by a cartilaginous growth plate -the epiphyseal growth plate disappears when bone growth is complete -epiphyses and fuse different times, but at predictable rates -useful for “aging” skeletons -the sutures (held together by fibrous tissue) between cranial bones disappear as we age -suture: unfused when born because it permits the rapid growth of the brain during infancy and childhood -if sutures fuse too early (cranial synostosis), it doesn’t allow the brain to grow, which leads to complications
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