Chapter 5 Notes
Chapter 5 Notes Psych 288
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by mkennedy24 on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 288 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. S. Gervais in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Social Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
gt Chapter 5 The Self 0 Section 51 The Origins and Nature of the SelfConcept Objective What is the selfconcept and how does it develop 0 The overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes Knowledge of who we are the quotmequot o Strohminger and Nichols 2014 Graph of Results Figure 51 Page 1 2 2 es in a person impact His or Hark Resu s People z th I n k that Based on Strohminger amp Nichols 2913 quoten changes in morality eg how cruel heshe was would alter the true self more than other changes in perceptual abilities eg change in vision Morality is viewed as central to the self concept more so than cognitive processes or desWes Culture in uences the self 0 The I Thinking about ourselves How am I right now A way of o de ning oneself in terms of one s relationship to other people and recognizing that ones behavior is of ten determined by the thoughts feelings and actions of others I am shyquot I like good musicquot Western Cultures Masako Owada Harvard and Oxford educated woman gave up career as a diplomat to marry a prince Westerners were shocked to discover this and assumed Masako was coerced into marriage by a backward sexist society A way of de ning oneself in terms of one s relationship to other people and recognizing that one s behavior is often determined by the thoughts feelings and actions of others I am a brothersisterquot I am a Huskerquot I am an Americanquot Asian and nonwestern cultures Real life example Masako Owada Harvard and Oxford educated woman gave up career as a diplomat to marry a prince Asian and nonwestern cultures Masako s decision to give up her career was not surprising and was a natural consequence of her view of herself as connected and obligated to others 0 Gender Differences Women Relational interdependent Close relationships quotI am the youngest daughter of my familyquot Men Collective interdependent Larger groups I am in a fraternityquot Functions of the Self lo Ii male I female Enilleetive Statements Way we understand who we are and formulate and organize this information 0 Way we make plans and execute decisions Example Decision to read your textbook instead of going out for icecream Example Deciding to not make a scene with your exboyfriend because it will just embarrass you The way we present ourselves to other people and get them to see us the way we want to be seen The way in which we try to maintain positives views about ourselves Relatienal Statements 0 Section 52 Knowing Ourselves Through Introspection Objective To what extent do people know themselves through introspection and what are the consequences of introspection Looking inward to examine the inside informationquot and we and we alone have about our thoughts feelings and motives Example Sat and wondered what major you want to study Example You binge watch Net ix instead of studying for your psychology of social behavior exam One of the most amazing things about the human mind is that we can use it to examine ourselves Consequences and Limits of Introspection o Focusing on the Self Self Awareness theory The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values Seeing ourselves on video or in the mirror can cause our thought to turn inward When this happens we evaluate and compare our current behavior to our internal standards and values Wilson Laser and Stone 1982 Students rate mood each day for 5 weeks Also rate factors that might relate to their mood 0 Day of the week 0 Amount of sleep 0 How relationships are going At end of study rate how much they thought each factor related to mood o 3not at all to 3very much Result 1 o Modest accuracy when estimating predictors of mood Actual People Correlati s on Rating 5 Relationship 51 152 5 Sleep 04 100 Friday 05 180 Result 2 0 People relied on causal theories about mood o Other people were as accurate as participant s own ratings oJudging Why we Feel the Way we Do Telling More Than we Can Know Trying to gure out why we do what we do another form of introspection 1 Theories about the causes of one s own feelings and behavior often we learn such theories from our culture eg absence makes the heart grow fonden 0 Consequences of Introspecting About Reasons Attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for ones attitude people assume their attitudes math the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize Real life example You broke up with your boyfriendgirlfriend The next day they come in and profess their love for you In order to make your decision about whether or not to take himher back you make a procons list During the time of making the list your boss talks about how much he likes himher So you write on the pro side boss likes signi cant otherquot Then your exsignificant other accidently breaks your TV prompting you to write on the cons side Clumsy By waiting to view someone s actions and attitudes does not help in decision making nor does putting it on a piece of paper It only makes you assume their attitudes and actions match your feelings that are plausible and easy to verbaHze 0 Section 53 Knowing Ourselves by Observing Our Own Behavior The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation which it occurs lntrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or nd it interesting not because of external rewards and pressures The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards and pressures not because we enjoy the task of nd it interesting The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons Rewards that are given for performing a task regardless of how well the task is done Rewards that are based on how well we preform a task Mindsets and Motivation The idea that we have a set amount of ability that cannot change Set amount of ability eg morals intelligence The idea that our ideas are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow malleable amount of qualities GROWTH MINDSET WINS OVERALL Understanding Our Emotions The TwoFactor Theory of Emotion The idea that emotional experience is the result of a twostep selfperception process in which people rst experience psychological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it o A person experiences arousal fear excitement attraction etc oThe person then looks for a reason for the arousal oFinding the Wrong Cause Misattribution of Arousal O The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do 0 Dutton and Aron 1974 Men meet an attractive woman oOn scary bridge After crossing scary bridge resting on bench In which condition were the men most attracted to the woman When the men met the woman on the scary bridge because the fear was the misattribution of arousal The men gured the heart beating fast etc was due to the woman there fore they Percentage of men who telephoned the woman When ey39were rested after crossing the bridge When t ey were on the bridge Woman approached participants were more likely to call the woman after Social Identity Theory Henri Tajfel and John Turner Europe 0 Self Esteem from identifying with groups we belong too African American American Women 0 Section 54 Using Other People to Know Ourselves Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves O 0 Social Comparison Evaluating one s opinions and abilities by comparing oneself to others When do we compare No objective standard Uncertainty The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to others 0 Two questions 0 When do people engage in social comparison With whom do they choose to compare themselves Answers Given time look for appropriate comparison lnitialy anyone around Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability The nature of our goals determines whom we compare ourselves too Knowing Ourselves by Adopting Other Peoples View Chares Cooley O O O 0 Person views self through eyes of others and gains self concept quotWe see ourselves and the social world through the eyes of other people and often adopt those views Especially true when two people want to get along lmagine how we appear to others lmagine judgment of that appearance Deveop self through judgment of others The process whereby people adopt another person s attitudes o Sinclair Lowery Hardin and Colangelo 2005 Social tuning to a likeable experimenter Pa rticipants took test of automatic prejudice toward black people after interacting with an experimenter wearing either an antiracism TShirt or a blank T Shirt Resu s High Prejudice 20 15 Automatic Prejudice I Blank Shirt I Antiracism Shirt Low Pre iudice 7 15quot Likable Unlikable 1 a Peoples predictions about how they will feel in response to a future emotional event 0 Section 55 SelfControl The Executive Function of the Self Doesn t work very well whereby we try to push thoughts out of our minds Engaging in selfcontrol is necessary for most goals SefContro is a muscle Fatigue 0 Exert more selfcontrol in morning than afternoon 0 Exert less selfcontrol after selfregulation Strengthen o Glucose oGrowth Mindset 0 Practice until habit 0 Section 56 Impression Management All the World s a Stage 1 E The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen self enhancement similar to selfesteem self verification similar to social cognition lngratiation and SelfHandicapping 0 The process whereby people atter praise and generally try to make themselves likable to another people often of higher status Competent Moral Threatening Helpless o The strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task they can avoid blaming themselves o People act in a way that reduce the likelihood that they will succeed on a task so that if they fail they can blame it on the obstacles they created rather than lack of ability Going out and partying the night before an exam o People devise ready made excuses in case they fail I will say blah blah blahquot if I fail this test 0 Section 57 Self Esteem How we Feel About Ourselves F Peoples evaluations of their own self worth that is the extent to which they view themselves as good competent and decent The theory that holds that selfesteem serves as a buffer protecting people from terrifying thought about their own morality o The combo of excessive selflove and lack of empathy toward others