Greek and Roman Mythology Chapter 9, 10, 11, 12
Greek and Roman Mythology Chapter 9, 10, 11, 12 CLA 2444
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Standiford on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLA 2444 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Christine Steer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views.
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I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12 Aphrodite and Eros (9) Two stories about the birth of Aphrodite o Comes from "aphros" which means sea foam o Born of the sea foam which formed from the castration of Uranus (genitals were thrown into the sea) o Came to the land of Cyrpus Cyrpus and Cythera sacred to her Aphrodite Urania; older version, stronger and more intelligent and spiritual o Child of Zeus and Dione Implies that she sprang from one deity Dione is simply feminine version of Zeus Essentially physical in nature; goddess of sex Heavenly and earthy love o Nude goddess represents heavenly or philosophical love o Clothed goddess represents earthly love The graces, attendants of Aphrodite o Nymphs, personifications of the aspects of beauty The Horae o Attendants of Aphrodite o Means time o Associated with time The seasons o Attendants o Children of Zeus and Themis o Beautiful, young, female nymphs Priapus o Son of Aphrodite and a god (accounts vary) Venus de Milo o Aphrodite of Milos o Made in late second century BC in Hellenistic age o Modified copy of the Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxiteles First nude female statue of the classical Greek world o Original is lost, but roman copies of the statue remain The women of Cyprus o According to Ovid, women of Cyprus denied the divinity of Aphrodite o Aphrodite turned them into the first prostitutes o They lost all sense of shame, were later turned to stone o Pygmalion lost all respect for women and decided to make the ideal women- a women made of stone Pygmalion o Scorned mortal women and carved a perfect maiden in marble o Falls in love with the statue o Aphrodite brought the statue to life, became a girl named Galatea Adonis o Great-great grandson od Galatea and Pygmalion Or the great grandson o Myrrha was turned into the Myrrh tree and after she was a tree she gives birth to Adonis o Most handsome young man o Went hunting and was killed by a boar, then turned into a flower, the anemone which sprang from his blood o In some versions, he is compelled to remain in the underworld with Persephone for half the year Venus and Adonis o One of the earliest operas o By John Blow o Composed and performed in the 1680's for King Charles II o Venus was played by Moll Davis, who was a lover of the king Cybele and Attis o Cybele sprung from the earth Had attributes of both sexes but lost her male organs Male organs were thrown to the ground, and an almond tree grew o Nana, picked a blossom from the tree o The fate of Attis Several versions Attis castrated himself and died from the injury In some versions he was driven to madness by Cybele, in others he did it for love Attis and Adonis are both resurrection deities o Both are lovers of the fertility goddess Aphrodite and Anchises o Zeus caused Aphrodite to fall in love with a mortal, Anchises o Zeus thought she needed to learn what it felt like… Had a son, Aeneas o Aeneas Great Trojan Hero Eros o Another son of Aphrodite o Called Cupid, Amor, Plato o Wrote the Symposium Aristohanes says that people originally had 4 arms, 4 legs, and 2 faces We were cut in half into our present form, and are always searching for our other half Socrates says that inner beauty is more important than physical beauty Learned from Diotima Cupid and Psyche Sappho o Greek poetess o From the island of Lesbos o Wrote love poetry to other women Artemis (10) o Beautiful virgin goddess of the hunt and the of the wild creatures o Associated with the moon o Twin of Apollo (god of the sun) o Parents Zeus and Leto o Both archers, both light the sky o Artemis was born first to Leto; and as a goddess also of childbirth, assisted with the birth of her brother o Niobe and her children Niobe, the Queen of Thebes Said se was greater than Leto and would not worship[ her, because she had 7 sons and 7 daughters and Leto only had 2 kids Artemis and Apollo killed the sons and daughters of Niobe (left one of each) When the final two children were killed, Niobe turned into a weeping stone o Story of Actaeon Was a hunter Accidentally came across Artemis bathing in a pool He was turned into a deer and hid dogs tore him to pieces o Story of SCallisto A nymph Follower of Artemis Not interested in men Zeus fell in love with her Zeus disguised himself as Artemis and seduced Callisto Artemis discovered Callisto was pregnant, and cast her out of her band of maidens and was turned into a bear Still gave birth to a human son, Arcas Arcus almost killed his mother Zeus stopped him Callisto and Artemis were turned into constellations (the big bear and the little bear) o Story of Orion Mighty, lusty hunter from the island of Chios Clearing the island of wild beasts for his king and encountered Artemis, whom he tried to rape She called forth a scorpion from earth which stung Orion to death o Story of Arethusa Nymph Desired by Alpheus a river god Artemis turned her into a stream of water to protect her virginity o Her Origin Virgin huntress Symbol of youth and female chastity Goddess of childbirth Associated with the moon and thus Selene (therefor the menstrual cycle) Associated with Hecate, the crone, the goddess of magic skill and the underworld o The Artemis of Ephesus Greek city in Anatolia Devoted to Artemis o Misogyny and Misandry Misogyny- hatred of women Misandry- hatred of men Artemis has no patience at all with men who pursue her o Lesbian themes Although the story of Zeus and Callisto seem to imply lesbianism; Aphrodite is the only goddess associated with any sexual love o Story of Hippolytus Son of Theseus, king of Athens Ardent follower of Artemis His stepmother, Phaedra fell in love with him When Hippolytus finds out, "O Zeus, why did…" Phaedra was mortified, and killed herself, but wrote a note to her husband saying she was killing herself because her son wanted to have sex with her Theseus called Poseidon, and asked to put a curse on Hippolytus Father and son were reconciled Apollo (11) o God of the sun, music, poetry, prophesy, medicine, and archer god o More important to the Greeks than the Romans o Parents Zeus and Leto o Leto had to wander to find a place to give birth to Apollo Because all lands were afraid of the wrath of Hera Island of Delos accepted Leto All the goddesses attended Leto Except Hera and Heras daughter Eileithyia (a goddess of childbirth) She was kept away because Hera was jealous of Leto Other goddesses found Eileithyia and brought her to Delos o Delphi was important to Apollo Where he housed his oracle (under Mount Parneassus) called Crisa (which would later be Delphi Under Mount Parnassus Apollo slew the dragon Pytho How Apollo got the name Pythian "pytho" means "I rot" The carcass was so big that it rotted in the sun; was said to take up acres of land The Omphalos Egg shaped stone which kept in the temple at Delphi Center of the world Established by Zeus and his eagles o Apollo Delphinius Associated with dolphins Wanted priests for his new oracle so he leapt on board a ship in the form of a dolphin and took the ship to Delphi o Pythian Games Every four years at Delphi Included sports, intellectual competitions o The Oracle People from all over the world consulted the oracle at Delphi Pythia (priestess) spoke the prophesy from her seat on the tripod The tripod A bowl supported by three legs Usually answers given by the oracle were confusing or ambiguous Apollo gets the name "Loxias" from this which refers to ambiguity Never a good idea to try and change your fate Where did the prophecy come from? Possible that toxic gasses filled the room The Pythia always gave answers in hexameter verse Scientists have measured the gasses in the room and concluded that there were not enough to intoxicate the priestess Many people working at the sanctuary to help with sacrifices and tend to the sanctuary o The Cumaean Sibyl Cumae is in Italy Aeneas consulted the Cumaean Sibyl She told him many useful things and was his guide to the underworld Received her oracle power from Apollo, but she was cursed to live on for generations when she spurned him o Apollo and Cassandra Apollo loved Priam's daughter, the princess of Troy When she accepted the advances of Apollo, he gave her the gift of prophesy When she changed her mind, he cursed her so that no one would believe her prophecies Cassandra was given to Agamemnon as a war prize after the war (Troy) and she accompanied him back to Greece where his wife (Clytemnestra) killed them both o Apollo and Marpessa Marpessa was loved by Apollo and the mortal Idas The two were going to fight over her but Zeus prevented them Zeus allowed Marpessa to choose, and she chose Idas o Apollo and Cyrene Cyrene was a nymph Apollo saw her wrestling with a lion They fell in love, and he took her to Lybia, and she bore him a son (Aristaeus) o Apollo and Daphne Ovid wrote of Apollo and Daphne Wrote in the time of Augustus Augustus identified himself with Apollo The story Apollo had just killed Python He was boasting of his success to Eros saying that Eros should not use arrows like a great hunter Eros got annoyed, and shot Apollo with an arrow that made him fall in love with Daphne, a nymph, the daughter of a river god He shot Daphne with an arrow to make her hate Apollo Apollo pursued Daphne but she fled from him, calling her father for help Her father turned her into a Laurel tree o Apollo and Hyacinthus Not all of Apollos loves were women Affair ended sadly Hyacinthus was hit in the face by a discus and died of the wound, in Apollos arms and his blood became a flower o Apollo also loved the youth Cyrasissus A hunter Accidentally killed a pet stag He was so sad about this, not even Apollo could comfort him. He wept and became the cypress tree o Apollo and Coronis One of the saddest love affairs A lovely young girl who became pregnant with Apollos child Unfortunately, Apollo learned that she was cheating on him and killed her The child did not die Apollo rescued it from the body of the mother and gave the child to Chiron the wise centaur to be raised Asclepius became the god of medicine o Apollos contest with Marsyas Marsyas was a satyr who picked up the discarded flute of Athena He believed he was a better musician than Apollo, and they had a contest which Apollo won He flayed (skinned alive) Marsyas for his arrogance o Apollos contest with Pan Pan and Apollo had a music competition Apollo won, but the foolish King Midas thought Pan should have won Apollo said Midas had no "ear" and turned the ears of Midas into big donkey ears o Apollos servitude At one point, Apollo killed one of the cyclopes who forged the thunderbolts for Zeus He was forced to serve King Admetus of Pherae for one year for this crime o The nature of Apollo The most Greek of the gods Wise, sensual, athletic, musical, embodies all virtues the Greeks loved Seeks wisdom, has prowess in sports, and he is open with his loves Hermes (12) o Many characteristics we might not think of as divine o Fills in a human portion of the overall personality of the Olympian Gods giving them a more well-rounded identity o From Mount Cyllene and associated with a place called Arcadia in Greece o Son of Zeus and Maia, one of the Pleiades Invented the Lyre on the first day of his life Used the shell of a tortoise as the base, and was able to play music on it Same day, he stole some of the cattle of Apollo Clever enough to not get caught Went back to his waiting mother to sleep At first Apollo was angry, but then was charmed by Hermes; they were half brothers Apollo went to Zeus The god overlooked his crimes because he was cute Hermes allowed Apollo to use his Lyre and all was forgiven o Beloved of Apollo and Zeus o Archetypal trickster o Psychopompos Convey souls to the underworld "conveyer of souls" o Depicted with winged sandals (talaria), travelers hat (petasus), and the staff (caduceus) o Statues of Hermes Herm Block of wood, with the head of a man and the other parts of a man Common symbol of fertility and good luck o Hermes and the Occult Egyptian god of the occult, Thoth Given the name "Trismegistus" which means "thrice great" o The name Hermes means "he from the stone heap: Boundary stones, grave stones, mile stones were associated with him o Hermaphroditus and Salmacis Hermaphroditus was a beautiful young man, who one day met Salmacis a nymph Salmacis fell in love with Hermaphroditus She tricked him into undressing and bathing in her pool of water While he was in the water, she undressed and dove in with him She clung tightly to him and their two bodies merged into one o Hermaphrodite Means partially male and partially female "intersex" o Many aspects to Hermes Thief, inventor, messenger, fertility god, crosser of boundaries and sexes Good friends with Apollo