Intro to Social Psych Notes
Intro to Social Psych Notes PSYC 3430 - 03
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3430 - 03 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Chapter 7 week of February 22 Social Psych Persuasion • Process by which a message induced change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors • Conformity and per are related but per is a more deliberate change to change people's attitudes and behavior • Process • Communication of message Who Persuades? • Advertisers, business, media: more we like more we buy • Parents • Peers • Teachers Why Persuades? • Government can get things moving such as war propoganda Model of Persuasion • Elaboration likelihood Model (ELM petty and cacioppo) ◦ Central Route - think carefully and scrutinive of message • High effort processing • Message content ◦ Peripheral route • Low effort processing - switching on auto pilot • Message cues - who is person making arugment (expert), am I in a good mood is this message making me happy? • When we get a p message what is the likelihood that we will elaborate Central vs. peripheral • Key determinates ◦ Motivation • More motivated to process message if they're imporant to us ◦ Ability • Sometimes don’t know enough about the topic • High motivationi and ability = central • Low motivation or ability = peripheral • Colours video ◦ Nucleus acombumus Motivation • Message content ◦ Perosnal relevance (involvement) • Imporatn consequences fo rself • Comprehensive exams study (LOOK UP PPL ▪ How college students scrutinive a persuasive message • Convince college should adopt a policie comprehensive exam in order to receive degree; asked those almost graduation ◦ Strong vs weak arguments • Had to take exams if university intiated them and then theey'd ask if they'd adopt it in 10 years • Personal r high • Persona r low - peripheral • Strong ▪ Prestige of universities • Weak ▪ "Most stduents enjoy the challenege of taking the test" ◦ Source expertise • Princeton professor vs high school student about comprehensive exams for college ▪ High personal relevance • Chart • Didn't matter if it came from an expert ▪ Low personal relevance • Chart Motivation • Personal relevance • Audience personality ◦ Are they high in Need for cognition • Aspect of personality • High - think a lot ▪ Engage in and enjoy effortful thinking ▪ = persuaded with central route w o•L ▪ =peripheral route Ability • Limited mental resources ◦ Distracted, tired ◦ Complex message • Two sytems of thought ◦ Automatic ◦ Carefully • Use peripheral cues ◦ heuristics - automatic rule of thumb The Yale Approach ◦ Communicator/source variable (who) ◦ Message variables (what) ◦ Audience variables (to whom) ◦ Channel variables (what means) • Did it come face to face or over the radio • Developing a list of these different factors • A communicator is said to be credible when he or she is perceived as both an expert and trustworthy Communicator variables • Credibility ◦ Expertise • Knowledge, intelligence ◦ Trustworthiness • Self interest • Likability ◦ Similarity ◦ Attractiveness Limits of communicator • Sleeper effect ◦ Delayed impact of a message occurs when an initially discounted message become effective Message content • Reason or emotion? ◦ Depends on audience • Appeal to emotions ◦ Positive mood = peripheral process ◦ Fear arousing messages are most effective when they offer a protective strategy • Scare them they be like oh no we'll protect you • Fear appeals ◦ PP Extreme forms of persuasion • Video - Jonestown • Memocites?? • How do cults persuade? ◦ Foot in door - when you make a small request and follow up with bigger ◦ Charismatic leader(s) ◦ Target young vulnerable people ◦ Isolation ◦ Not always different from how other groups persuade Resisting change • Forewarning - know someone will be trying to persuade ◦ Cognitive response = counterarguing • Develop arguments against persuasive message • Distraction disarms counteraruging ◦ Attitude inoculation • Metaphor for using a vaccine as a metaphor • Expose to weak arguments • Increases resistence • Motivational response = reactance ◦ Desire to proetct freedom when threatened ◦ Change I nopposite direction • Bathroom grafﬁti study (pennebaker and sanders) ▪ More liekly to put on wall if there was a stern sign saying not to write on wall Advertising ◦ Sumbliminal Message • RATS was superimposed on tv at a threshold that was too qucik for conscious retaining • Words or images not consciously perceived • Believed to inﬂuence judgements ◦ Subliminal vs supraliminal (not going to test difference) • Not aware but can redect attention • Supra ▪ Eye chart that says need to buy glasses ◦ Laboratory evidence • Subliminal inﬂuence (strahan, spencer, and zanna (2002) ▪ Brought ppl into lab for study and showed them s. primes and they were thirsty and see words ﬂashed saying thirsty parched dry desert or window furniture scell phone • At end they offer them glass of water • Chart Subliminal advertising less effective outside lab • Subliminal effects require: • Correct lighting • Correct distance from image • Fixation on focal point • Lack of distraction
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