Forensic Anthropology Week 5
Forensic Anthropology Week 5 Anth 310
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Popular in Intro to Forensic Anthropology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Johnson on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 310 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Barbian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Forensic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Forensic anthropology Week 2/22/16 Introduction to Skeletal Biology Bone ● Hardness and resilience ● Tensile strength of cast iron without the weight and density ● Flexibility of steel ● Inorganic components ○ Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium ● Organic components ○ Collagen fibers Functions ● Bony framework ● Protects vital organs ○ Eye sockets = eyes protected ■ Not all animals have eye sockets ● Provide levers that transmit muscular forces ● Produce RBC’s ● Calcium and phosphorus bank External Structure ● Periosteum ○ A membrane that surrounds the bone, that lays over the surface of a live bone ● Diaphysis ○ shaft ● Epiphyses ○ Bony caps on both ends (growth plates) ● Metaphysis ○ In life, thin layer of cartilage in between the epiphyses and diaphysis (the true growth plates where growth occurs) ○ The metaphysis calcifies and then adds more cartilage to it ○ Maturity of different bones fuse together happens at different times Internal Structure ● Compact bone ○ Thick cortex of bone ○ Variable in width ○ In long bones, cortex forms a tube surrounding a hollow auxiliary cavity ■ Lined with endosteum ○ Cancellous (spongy) bone ■ Latticework strands of bone ● Trabeculae Forensic anthropology Week 2/22/16 Microscopic Structure ● Osteon ○ Haversian System ● Transmit blood vessels and nerves ● Lie along lines of mechanical stress ○ Wolff’s law ■ More osteons can be laid down where you get more stress ● Weight Bearing exercise Bone Cell Functions ● Produce protein in bone ● Stimulate mineralization of protein matrix ● Maintain bone tissues ● Resorb bone ○ Eat away at the cell to release what they’re holding ● Role in mineral physiology ● Modeling ○ Bone cells size and shape fetal and subadult skeleton through to maturity ● Remodeling ○ Ongoing event separate from growth and development ○ In adult skeleton the density, shape, and size change in response to factors ■ Ageing, exercise, injury, trauma, disease, diet, and occupation stress Osteoblast ● Bone producing cells ● Small, single nucleated cells ● Produce protein matrix called osteoid Osteocytes ● Bone maintaining cells ● Osteoblast that become surrounded by and incorporated with the protein matrix ○ Means they’re doing their job well Osteoclasts ● Large, multinucleated cells ● Associated with the destruction of bone ○ Remodel bone ○ Releasing the minerals within the cell Apatite ● Calcium phosphate present in the tissue fluid ● Crystallizes around the collagen fibers forming the hard matrix of bone Forensic anthropology Week 2/22/16 Bone Growth ● Endochondral Bone ○ Cartilage model that is gradually replaced by bone ○ Bones of limbs and vertebral column ● Intramembranous bone ○ Thick membrane that gradually mineralized ○ Flat bones of the skull, mandible and clavicles Bone Physiology Calcium ● Approx 1.5% of body weight ● Role in blood coagulation, cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction and nerve function ● 30% decrease in body fluids causes central peripheral nerves to discharge spontaneously ● Above normal levels causes depressed reflexes and sluggish CNS ● 100% turnover each year in infants and 18% turnover in adults ○ Adults every 5 years have a new skeleton Phosphorus ● Required for nucleic acids and phospholipids Vitamin D ● Required for absorption of calcium by the gastrointestinal tract and transport of calcium and phosphate in body ● Lack produces rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults ○ Rickets bows out the legs ○ Osteomalacia fracture of bones Human, Nonhuman and NonForensic Bone Human vs Animal ● Examine gross morphology ○ Cranial bones fairly easy to distinguish, although immature animal fragments may appear similar ○ Teeth fairly easy to distinguish; worn pig molars may cause a problem ○ Pelvis easily distinguish
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