Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU
Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
MUSC 309 Lecture 9 The Reaction to Rock and Roll I Rock and roll and RampB didn t enjoy instant popularity and success A Reaction from churches and civic groups 1 Unwholesome obscene 2 Morally corrupting encouraging wild rebellious behavior and violence 3 Also racist objections as well a Encyclopedia Brittanica in 1955 referring basically to early rockabilly and RampB de nes as maximum of rhythmic noise deliberately competing with the artistic ideals of the jungle itself b NY Times article called cannibalistic and tribalistic c White Citizens Councils in south at least open about objections i Feared integration ii Exposure of whites to AfricanAmerican culture B Reaction of large record labels how do we make money on this 1 Large record labels missed out on early rock and roll a Elvis early hits for Sun records in Memphis i As does Jerry Lee Lewis ii And most other rockabilly artists b Chuck Berry with Chess records in Chicago c Little Richard recorded on Specialty label in New Orleans 2 Want to capitalize on new style 3 Mostly by making rock and roll more acceptable to white mainstream 4 Strategies a Cover versions of RampB hits by white artists i Different from earlier cover arrangements aa Exact copying of arrangements bb Cleaning up ragged qualities cc Expunging all sexual innuendo from lyrics ii Most infamous 7 Pat Boone covers of Little Richard tunes b Create dance crazes for rock and roll songs c Infuse characteristics of rock and roll into pop mainstream d Create teen idols to sing new music i White ii Good looking teen idol types vaguely resembling Elvis aa Fabian Fabian Forte 1943 bb Frankie Avalon 1940 cc Bobby Rydell 1942 5 Mostly taming of rock into wilder avor of pop 11 Several things happen in 1959 that nearly wipe out rock and roll A The Day the Music Died Feb 3 1959 Holly Big Bopper Richie Valens killed B Elvis drafted in late 1958 by design C Jerry Lee Lewis marries 13 yr old cousin while still married to second wife causes public backlash D Chuck Berry arrested for violation of Mann Act E Payola Scandal 1 Congressional committee formed to investigate corrupt broadcasting practices 2 Including charges that independent record companies paying disc jockeys to play their records a True to certain extent b Used to force several indie labels and several prominent DJs including Freed out of business F But record companies don t want to lose money to be made on rock so 111 The Brill Building A Attempt of record companies to manufacture rock and roll B Mostly a pop phenomenon 1 Many songs written by Aldon Music Co 2 Socalled Brill Building even though across street a Hired teams of songwriters including Leiber and Stoller to write rock and roll hits b Pop crafted songs with teen themes rock sensibilities more or less 3 Songwriters included a Gerry Goffln and Carole King b Neil Sedaka c Paul Anka 4 Show tape ofNeil Sedaka C However occasionally artists produced solid pop rock hits of some note 1 Ricky Nelson 19401985 2 Dion Dion DiMucci 1939 and the Belmonts Ex Runaround Sue D Brill Building becomes new Tin Pan Alley D Brill Building becomes new Tin Pan Alley 1 Music by its songwriters in a zone where rock and roll and pop merge 2 Distinctive and rather homogenous sound a popular songs i Typical pop lyrics about relationships ii Most in AABA pop song form iii Focused on melody line with simple harmonic accompaniment b Heavily in uenced by doowop i Background vocals in doowop style ii Frequent call and response c Animated beat d Thick textures i Made possible by multitrack recording ii Overdubbing aa Different layers of song recorded onto audio tape bb Additional sounds like sweetening instruments added cc mixed onto master tape before committed to acetate dd Effects can be added to any all layers iii Greatly effects sound of the record band iv Decisions made by producer aa Selects which arrangement takes are used bb Can use overdubbing to add instruments sounds etc cc Approves if doesn t do mix Relative levels of each track Effects changes to audio signal Echo or reverb panning etc d Ex the Shirelles Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow i Fairly quick tempo ii 4 bar intro iii Song in ve l6bar phrases each AABA aa Endweighted to end of section Texture becomes thicker as song progresses E g strings added at end of rst verse continue into second with more active part backing vocals become more active etc bb Overall form is AABA with interlude iv backbeat in drum part aa second beat of measure subdivided in two rebound backbeat bb common in early 1960s pop rock iv 8 beat rock rhythms v Lead vocals plus doowop type accompaniment vi Not typical lyrics aa Most Brill Building fare deals with teen relationships in innocent way bb This deals with the rami cations of potential one night stand vii Heavily produced 7 orchestral lls at ends of phrases as backing throughout 3 Brill Building style producer driven 3 Most in uential producer of the 1960s was Phil Spector 1940 a Part of the Brill Building crowd worked with Leiber and Stoller b Classical music fan thought of pop records as little symphonies for the kiddies c So Spector records tend to have i Thick full textures achieved by extensive overdubbing recording one track over another ii Often include a large orchestra with lots of percussion iii Prerecorded sounds iv Background vocals v And standard rock ensemble vi Plus the group d Textures so complex called the wall of sound or Spector wall of sound e Many of groups produced by Spector were girl groups i Trios or quartets of female singers ii Sound controlled by producers songwriters iii Image controlled by producers and record companies iv Marketed to appeal to young female audience f EX Da Doo Ron Ron i Group less important than Spector production aa Viewed groups as interchangeable bb Crystals aren t singing on at least one of their hits ii Wall of Sound aa large group of backing vocalists bb piano cc bass dd guitar ee drums ff saxophones gg auxiliary percussion iii Rhythmic stratification aa Slow harmonic rhythm saxes bb Beat 7 bass bass drum hand claps cc Piano 7 triplets dd Backbeat 7 snare ee Syncopated vocal line iv Driven by hook da doo ron ron v Lyrics about young love vi Sophisticated production IV Dance crazes A Importance of American Bandstand 1 TV huge vehicle in popularization of rock and roll 2 Most in uential show throughout history was American Bandstand a Began broadcasting from Philadelphia 1957 b Projected cleancut safe mostly white at start image of rock B Launched careers of many of teen idols C And createdpromoted dance crazes 1 First dances created to go with popular songs a First and foremost 7 The Twist b Popular with all age groups c Topped the charts twice 1960 and 1962 2 Followed by host of other records that provided instructions for new dance fads a First Pinetop s Boogie Woogie l928 b But reached critical mass in earlymid 1960s c Many by Chubby Checker d Others such as the Mashed Potato Watusi manufactured by Brill Building writers e All similar in style i l2bar blues as verse or refrain ii Straight rock ensemble with backing vocals iii Not heavily produced iv Emphatic presentation of rock style beat 3 Very much pop rock 4 But goes a long way to remove some of stigma of rock 5 And indirectly some of segregation taboos VI Garage Rock A Rock produced outside of rock industry 1 Often forget thousands of amateur groups formed across the country after rock and roll becomes popular 2 Seems accessible even for those with little musical experience 3 Play at local driveins small clubs etc 4 In time some recorded by local independent labels a Regional hits picked up by larger record companies b Distributed and promoted nationally B Characteristics 1 Often amateur or inexperienced musicians 2 Doityourself ethos a Learn as you go b Passion more important than advanced musicianship 3 Low production values 4 Rudimentary instrumental parts that are repetitive or riffbased 5 Untutored vocals often harsh and strained 6 Thin or medium textures 7 But lots of energy and rhythmic drive C Louie Louie l Quintessence of garage rock style 2 A short history of Louie Louie a Cuban bandleader Rosendo Ruiz Quevedo i One of the creators of the chachacha ii Writes song about popularity of dance Cha Cha Cha Loco or Amarren al Loco b Rene Touzet Cuban bandleader working in LA creates arrangement i To emphasize lyrical content writes crazy riff for intro iii replaces the standard chacha rhythmil 2 chachacha 7 with its rhythmic inversion c LA based songwriter Richard Berry adapts for his doowop group i Number 70 on national charts ii But regional hit on West coast d Gains popularity in Paci c Northwest i Nearly every rock RampB band does cover versions ii Most in uential 7 Rockin Robin Roberts and the Fabulous Wailers aa First truly rock and roll version bb First recording after Berry version in 1957 cc Their recording establishes surf rock guitar sound alternate riff under verses and quotLet s give it to 39em right nowquot as essential parts ofquotLouie Louiequot e Kingsmen and Paul Revere and the Raiders record versions in Portland three days apart at same studio f Paul Revere record technically superior but Kingsmen version becomes the de nitive one 3 The Kingsmen quotLouie Louiequot a Shortcomings by standards of time i Screamed nearly unintelligible lyrics ii Unpredictable timekeeping iii Sloppy guitar solo iv Muf ed bass makes harmonic progression almost subliminal b Nearly all intentional c Meant to capture excitement of live performance rather than slick studio production d Other features i Harsh untutored vocals that use whole range of voice ii Riff dominated aa For much of song keyboards bass and guitar all play riff bb Much of vocal line based on same motives V Surf rock A New rock sound develops in Southern California in early 1960s 1 Little in uence of founding fathers of rock and roll especially rockabilly 2 Associated with surfer subculture 3Guitar oriented sound defined by instrumentalists B Dick Dale 1 King of the Surf Guitar 2 Introduces new guitar effects into rock music a Tremolo b Rapid glissandos 7 slides between notes 3EXploits possibilities of Fender Stratocaster 4 Leo Fender a Califomiabased luthier maker of stringed instruments b In 1950 creates first massproduced solidbody electric guitar with single pickup microphone for all strings c 1954 releases redesigned Telecaster Stratocaster i Two tone knobs ii Three pickups iii Lever selects which pickup projected through amp aa Neck bb Middle cc Lead iv Tremolo lever or whammy bar connected to slots for all siX strings can move all at once 5 EX Dick Dale Misirlou a Based on Middle Eastern stringed instrument style b Adds Latin in uences iTrumpet iiVariant of clave rhythm c Heavy backbeat d Sizzling glissandos e Tremolo and reverb prominent in main riff C The Beach Boys 1 Brian Wilson 1942 Dennis Wilson 19441983 Carl Wilson 19461998 Mike Love 1941 Alan Jardine 1942 2 First hit Surfin Safari exploits terminology of surfer culture a Becomes a hit b Sparks nationwide surfer craze 3 Primary in uences Chuck Berry and Bill Haley a also in uenced by the Four Freshmen pop jazz singers b and doowop 4 Simplicity of early lyrics disguises relatively sophisticated music 5 Beach Boys I Get Around a Wide vocal harmonies i Large distance between lowest and highest harmony parts ii Falsetto obbligato requisite high part from doowop Vocal riffs from doowop Melody laid over top Different character of verse refrain Wide variety of sounds shape song f A capella introduction g Chorus chugging accompaniment from guitar bass drums organ h Verse i First two lines 7 accompanied by bass with lots of reverb ii Second two 7 claps added iii Short transition guitar Hammond organ iv Third couplet 7 bass as above plus delicate staccato guitar line v Fourth 7 claps reenter D Wide variety of tone colors amount of studio manipulation in Beach Boys songs dictated by producer Brian Wilson 99057
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