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Dr. Greene Week 6 Notes

by: Rachel Ferrell

Dr. Greene Week 6 Notes NTRI 2000-002

Rachel Ferrell
GPA 4.0

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Nutrition and Health
Michael Winand Greene
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 02/26/16
Rachel  Ferrell   NTRI  2000   2/22/16-­‐2/26/16     Chapter  5  cont:     Fats  and  Oils:   • Physical  properties  of  triglycerides  (TG)→depends  on  the  makeup  of  fatty  acids   o Short  chain  length/  lower  degree  of  saturation→  TG  usually  oils   o Long  chain  length/  higher  degree  of  saturation→  TG  usually  solid  fats   Essential  Fatty  Acids:   • Omega-­‐6  (LA)   o How  much  is  needed?   § 2-­‐4  tablespoons  a  day   § vegetables  are  best  sources   o functions   § immune  system   § vision   § help  form  cell  membranes   § produce  eicosanoids=  involved  in  practically  all  important  functions  in  the  body   o Health  related  effects   § Archidonic  acid=  fatty  acid  broken  down  from  LA   • Increases  blood  clotting   • Increases  inflammation   • Omega-­‐3(ALA):   o From  seeds,  nuts,  fish  oil,  flax  seed  oil   o Also  found  in  canola,  walnuts,  mussels,  crab,  shrimp,  soybean  oil   o Recommended  intake:   § About  2  servings  of  fish  per  week   o Health  related  effects:   § Eicosapentaenoic  Acid(EPA)  and  docosahexaenoic  acid(DHA)=both  fatty  acids   broken  down  from  omega-­‐3/ALA   § Decrease  blood  clotting     § Reduce  heart  attack   § Decrease  inflammation   § Excess  may  cause  hemorrhagic  stroke  (blood  in  brain)   § Other  possible  issues:  lower  triglycerides,  rheumatoid  arthritis,  behavior  disorder   Signs  and  Symptoms  of  Essential  Fatty  Acid  Deficiency:   • Flaky,  itchy  skin   • Diarrhea   • Increases  risk  of  infection  (because  of  immune  systems  lack  of  essential  FA)   • Stunted  growth  and  reduced  wound  healing   Use  of  Omega-­‐3  Fatty  Acids  in  U.S.:   • Most  common  natural  product  (non-­‐vitamin/mineral)   • About  37%  of  adults  and  31%  children  have  consumed  it  in  the  last  30  days   Side  Effects/Risks  of  Omega-­‐3:   • From  FDA→  says  it  is  generally  safe   • Can  have  minor  gastrointestinal  side  effects  (diarrhea,  heartburn,  indigestion,  bloating)   • High  does  can  interact  with  blood  thinners  and  drugs  used  for  blood  pressure   • High  levels  of  mercury,  pesticides,  or  polychlorinated  biphenyls  (PCBs)   • Omega-­‐3  supplements  don’t  appear  to  have  these   Triglycerides:   • =glyceride+  3  fatty  acid  chains   • synthesis  occurs  stepwise  by  specific  enzymes   • Breakdown:   o Diglyceride   § Breakdown  product  of  TG   § 2  fatty  acids  +  glycerol  backbone   o Monoglyceride   § Breakdown  product  of  a  TG   § 1  fatty  acid  +  glycerol  backbone   Phospholipids:   • Structurally  similar  to  triglycerides   o Except  fatty  acid  is  removed  and  replaced  by  a  phosphate  group   • Lecithin   o An  emulsifier,  also  found  in  cell  membranes   • Produced  in  the  liver→gallbladder→small  intestine   • Functions:   o Forms  parts  of  cell  membranes     o Component  of  bile   o Important  emulsifier  of  fats  in  cooking  (mixes  oils  and  water)   § Source  is  egg  yolk   § Found  in  wheat  germ,  peanuts,  soy  beans   § Added  to  foods  for  baking   Sterols  (Cholesterols):   • Cholesterol   o multi-­‐ring  structure  (5  carbon  rings)   o only  found  in  animal  products   o Roles  in  body:   § Part  of  cell  membranes   § Component  of  bile   § Precursor  to  bile  acids   § Necessary  in  production  of  steroid  hormones  (estrogen,  testosterone)   § Precursor  for  Vitamin-­‐D   Lipids-­‐Digestion:   • Starts  in  mouth  with  enzymes  in  saliva     • Continues  in  stomach  with  enzymes   • Small  intestine→by  emulsification  and  more  enzymes   • Lipases=  enzymes  that  break  down  fats     o salivary,  stomach,  and  pancreatic  lipases   o only  works  on  short  to  medium  length  fatty  acid  chains   • Hormone  Cholecystokinin  (CCK)=  stimulates  release  of  pancreatic  lipase   • Small  Intestine:   o Primary  site  for  fat  digestion   o Fat  emulsified  by  bile  into  smaller  particles   Micelle:   o Forms  small  lipid  droplets  called  micelles   o bile  is  recycled     o pancreatic  lipase=  digests  triglycerides  into  monoglyceride   and  fatty  acids     Fat  Absorption:   • mucosal  cells=  enterocytes   • Monoglycerides/Long-­‐chain  fatty  acids:   o Absorbed  by  micelles;  diffuse  into   intestinal  cells   o Also  protein-­‐mediated  uptake=   Facilitated  Diffusion   § Some  transporters   stimulated  by  insulin  (FATPs)   o Used  to  reform  triglycerides  in   mucosal  cells  (enterocytes)   o Packaged  by  a  lipoprotein   (chylomicron)   o Taken  up  by  lymphatic  system   • Short  Chain  Fatty  Acids:   o Diffuse  into  enterocytes   o Water  soluble→can  be  absorbed  by   blood   o Taken  by  capillaries  to  liver  via  portal  vein   Digestion  of  Phospholipids:   • Enzymes  released  from  pancreas  and  cells  of  small  intestine   • Broken  down  into   o Glycerol  (backbone)   o Fatty  acids   o Remaining  parts   Digestion  of  Cholesterols:   • Enzymes  released  from  pancreas     • Cholesterols  absorbed     o Using  specific  transport  proteins   Transporting  Fats  in  a  Water  Environment  (Human  Body):   • Lipoproteins=serve  as  transport  vehicles  for  lipids   • for  small  intestine  and  liver→  to  cells  of  the  body   • Four  classes  of  Lipoproteins:   o Chylomicrons=  biggest   o VLDL=  very  low  density   o LDL=  low  density   o HDL=high  density   • Chylomicrons:   o Triglycerides  broken  down  to  glycerides  and  fatty  acids  by  lipoprotein  lipase   § Found  on  the  inner  walls  of  capillaries   o Fatty  acids  taken  up  by  the  cells  of  the  body   § Diffusion   § Facilitated  transport→protein  mediated   o Most  of  glycerol  taken  up  by  the  liver  


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