Dr. Greene Week 6 Notes
Dr. Greene Week 6 Notes NTRI 2000-002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Rachel Ferrell NTRI 2000 2/22/16-‐2/26/16 Chapter 5 cont: Fats and Oils: • Physical properties of triglycerides (TG)→depends on the makeup of fatty acids o Short chain length/ lower degree of saturation→ TG usually oils o Long chain length/ higher degree of saturation→ TG usually solid fats Essential Fatty Acids: • Omega-‐6 (LA) o How much is needed? § 2-‐4 tablespoons a day § vegetables are best sources o functions § immune system § vision § help form cell membranes § produce eicosanoids= involved in practically all important functions in the body o Health related effects § Archidonic acid= fatty acid broken down from LA • Increases blood clotting • Increases inflammation • Omega-‐3(ALA): o From seeds, nuts, fish oil, flax seed oil o Also found in canola, walnuts, mussels, crab, shrimp, soybean oil o Recommended intake: § About 2 servings of fish per week o Health related effects: § Eicosapentaenoic Acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA)=both fatty acids broken down from omega-‐3/ALA § Decrease blood clotting § Reduce heart attack § Decrease inflammation § Excess may cause hemorrhagic stroke (blood in brain) § Other possible issues: lower triglycerides, rheumatoid arthritis, behavior disorder Signs and Symptoms of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency: • Flaky, itchy skin • Diarrhea • Increases risk of infection (because of immune systems lack of essential FA) • Stunted growth and reduced wound healing Use of Omega-‐3 Fatty Acids in U.S.: • Most common natural product (non-‐vitamin/mineral) • About 37% of adults and 31% children have consumed it in the last 30 days Side Effects/Risks of Omega-‐3: • From FDA→ says it is generally safe • Can have minor gastrointestinal side effects (diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion, bloating) • High does can interact with blood thinners and drugs used for blood pressure • High levels of mercury, pesticides, or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) • Omega-‐3 supplements don’t appear to have these Triglycerides: • =glyceride+ 3 fatty acid chains • synthesis occurs stepwise by specific enzymes • Breakdown: o Diglyceride § Breakdown product of TG § 2 fatty acids + glycerol backbone o Monoglyceride § Breakdown product of a TG § 1 fatty acid + glycerol backbone Phospholipids: • Structurally similar to triglycerides o Except fatty acid is removed and replaced by a phosphate group • Lecithin o An emulsifier, also found in cell membranes • Produced in the liver→gallbladder→small intestine • Functions: o Forms parts of cell membranes o Component of bile o Important emulsifier of fats in cooking (mixes oils and water) § Source is egg yolk § Found in wheat germ, peanuts, soy beans § Added to foods for baking Sterols (Cholesterols): • Cholesterol o multi-‐ring structure (5 carbon rings) o only found in animal products o Roles in body: § Part of cell membranes § Component of bile § Precursor to bile acids § Necessary in production of steroid hormones (estrogen, testosterone) § Precursor for Vitamin-‐D Lipids-‐Digestion: • Starts in mouth with enzymes in saliva • Continues in stomach with enzymes • Small intestine→by emulsification and more enzymes • Lipases= enzymes that break down fats o salivary, stomach, and pancreatic lipases o only works on short to medium length fatty acid chains • Hormone Cholecystokinin (CCK)= stimulates release of pancreatic lipase • Small Intestine: o Primary site for fat digestion o Fat emulsified by bile into smaller particles Micelle: o Forms small lipid droplets called micelles o bile is recycled o pancreatic lipase= digests triglycerides into monoglyceride and fatty acids Fat Absorption: • mucosal cells= enterocytes • Monoglycerides/Long-‐chain fatty acids: o Absorbed by micelles; diffuse into intestinal cells o Also protein-‐mediated uptake= Facilitated Diffusion § Some transporters stimulated by insulin (FATPs) o Used to reform triglycerides in mucosal cells (enterocytes) o Packaged by a lipoprotein (chylomicron) o Taken up by lymphatic system • Short Chain Fatty Acids: o Diffuse into enterocytes o Water soluble→can be absorbed by blood o Taken by capillaries to liver via portal vein Digestion of Phospholipids: • Enzymes released from pancreas and cells of small intestine • Broken down into o Glycerol (backbone) o Fatty acids o Remaining parts Digestion of Cholesterols: • Enzymes released from pancreas • Cholesterols absorbed o Using specific transport proteins Transporting Fats in a Water Environment (Human Body): • Lipoproteins=serve as transport vehicles for lipids • for small intestine and liver→ to cells of the body • Four classes of Lipoproteins: o Chylomicrons= biggest o VLDL= very low density o LDL= low density o HDL=high density • Chylomicrons: o Triglycerides broken down to glycerides and fatty acids by lipoprotein lipase § Found on the inner walls of capillaries o Fatty acids taken up by the cells of the body § Diffusion § Facilitated transport→protein mediated o Most of glycerol taken up by the liver
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