Physical Anthropology First Half of Week 5
Physical Anthropology First Half of Week 5 Anth 385
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Johnson on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 385 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Barbian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Physical Anthropology 2/22/16 Old World Monkeys ● Colobine Monkeys ○ Asian Langurs, African colobus monkeys ○ Some specialized leaf and seed eaters ■ Pouched stomachs ■ Long intestinal tracts ● Cercopithecine monkeys ○ Baboons/Macaques + Guenons/Mangabeys ○ Includes terrestrials specimens ■ Most of their time on the ground ● None of the new world monkeys do that ○ Notable sexual dimorphism in some species ■ The females and the males look extremely different ● Example body size differences, snout difference, color differences ○ Cheek pouches ○ Ischial callosities Hominoid Characteristics (the group that's apes and humans) ● We share certain characteristics with apes that we don’t share with monkeys ● Relatively large brains, especially cerebral cortex ● Short, broad trunks ● No tail ● Skeletal specialization for suspensory locomotion ○ Some degree of bipedal locomotion ○ Swing below on the tree branches ● Flat and rounded molars ● Blood proteins group chimps, gorillas and humans Who are the apes? Gibbons and Siamangs (Lesser Apes) = small bodied ● Southeast Asia ● Specialized brachiators ○ Swinging arm over arm in the trees ○ They’re off balanced can’t really balance themselves over their legs ● Pair Bonding ● Little Sexual dimorphism ● Highly territorial Great Apes Orangutans ● Borneo and Sumatra (South East Asia) Physical Anthropology 2/22/16 ● High degree of Sexual dimorphism ○ Body size ○ Cheek pads ○ Throat pouches ● Arboreal fruiteaters ● Solitary Gorillas ● Africa ● Eat stems, shoots, leaves, roots, flowers ● Large degree of sexual dimorphism ○ Body size (twice as large) ○ Sagittal crest ( a crest that runs right down the center of the skull from the muscles of anchoring to the bone of the skull) cone shaped ● Knuckle Walking ● Harem (unimale groups= 1 sexually mature male group to many females) with “Silverback” as leader Chimpanzees ● Forested areas of Africa ● Two species ● Fusion Fission society ○ One big group that breaks off into smaller groups, no permanent social group ● Pan trogolodytes (common chimp) ○ Moderate dimorphism ● Pan paniscus (bonobo or pygmy chimp) ○ Longer limbs, smaller heads, dark faces, part in their hair ○ No sexual dimorphism ○ More social and female centered ○ Copulate all the time ○ Walk bipedally a lot Hominid Traits (Hominin Traits) ● Bipedalism (definitive separation of humans and apes) ○ Pelvis Shape ○ Lumbar curve ○ Head balanced over body ● Thumb is longer and more flexible ● Larger brain size (based on body size) ○ Cerebral cortex ● Generalized teeth ○ Ushaped dental arch ○ Present of a chin ( recent evolutionary shift 40,000 yrs) Physical Anthropology 2/22/16 Tooth Arcade Shape ● Earliest primates diverged in back ● Modern apes = rectangular ● Humans = parabolic (arch shaped) Taxonomy and Macroevolution Taxonomy ● Formal systematic organization of organisms into a coherent classification system ○ Hierarchical system ○ Linnaeus History of Taxonomy ● Linnaeus’ system based on similarities and difference ○ Objective = to reveal God’s plan ○ Static system ○ Binomial nomenclature ● Modern taxonomies reflect evolutionary relationships Steps in Taxonomy ● Define the unit of analysis = species ● Use morphological similarities and dissimilarities ● Select traits which reflect similarities resulting from evolutionary relationships ○ Problems with convergence Classifying Organisms ● Need to decide if similar traits: ○ Inherited from common ancestor or ○ Independent solutions to a particular problem ● Differentiating between Homologs and Analogs Taxonomy ● Derived= features are unique to a particular level ● Primitive = features are shared by a number of taxa ○ Don’t tell you much because so many animals have them Principles of Classification ● Homologies = similarities based on descent from a common ancestor ● Analogies = similarities based on common function ○ Convergence ○ Homoplasy Physical Anthropology 2/22/16 Homology vs. Homoplasy ● Homology is any similarity between characteries that is due to their shared ancestry ● Homoplasy occurs when characters are similar but are not derived from a common ancestor.
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