Midterm Review and notes for February 22 & 24
Midterm Review and notes for February 22 & 24 ENGL 2250 - 001
Popular in American Literature before 1865
ENGL 2250 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Callisa Ruschmeyer on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 2250 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Julia Tigner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see American Literature before 1865 in Foreign Language at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
February 22-26 “To the Right Honourable William, Earl of Dartmouth Class Notes Published in 1773 Appealing to the Earl because he is a friend of abolitionist and can help abolish slavery Radical for her to make this appeal as a slave Makes comparison between slavery and the revolution- just like Banneker Stanza One and Two Comparison to revolutionary war Discusses "New England" and the new nation that is about to form Speaks about the bliss of independence Stanzas Three and Four Appeals to the Dartmouth Parents are mentioned- important idea- very humanizing; all people can sympathize with a child being taken by their parents o Appeals to the heartstrings of everyone --> pathos How does she undermine Jefferson's Declaration of Independence? o She interrogates the idea of all men are created equal and the idea of justice o Her poetry displays to Jefferson that black people can be intelligent o Her mere existence undermines what Jefferson said in his State of Virginia address How do Puritan ideologies shape her work? How does she deviate from these ideas? o Wants to work in a community and have preservation of the whole o God's will o How it deviates Puritans think that everyone has a place- and her trying to move up in society is wrong David Walker, From Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World More militant and angry- not negotiating (like Banneker) Not convinced that whites will do their part Banneker was speaking directly to Thomas Jefferson; Walker speaks to the blacks 1. How does Walker prove that the condition of the Israelites was better under the Egyptians than blacks are under the whites? a. If the blacks were put into power, they would not be able to do anything- Israelites were trusted with positions of power b. Israelites were give fertile land- but if the blacks had any land, even the poorest of land, the whites could take it away c. Israelites were seen as human- the blacks are not d. A black person could not marry a white person- the Israelites could marry the Egyptians 2. Find two passages in the excerpt of Walker's Appeal that are in direct response to Jefferson's claims. How does Walker refute claims made in Jefferson's Notes on the State of VA? a. Jefferson declares blacks are inferior to whites in both "bodies and minds" (page 514) b. Creator making the black people- and God is on their side because they are oppressed c. "hindering" blacks from their freedom (that they should be entitled to it) (page 518) d. "Slave to any tyrant"- killing family if they slave himself dies (page 517) 3. Banneker vs. Walker o Banneker More civil and diplomatic Wrote as a representative of all blacks- directly addressing Thomas Jefferson Wrote in a form of a letter o Walker Straight to the point More angry and blunt Wrote to defend all blacks Directly addresses the black race- alluding to Thomas Jefferson's thoughts Wrote in the form of an appeal (like a speech) Indian Removal and Resistance and Dewi Brown's A Cherokee Indian Class Notes The Cherokee Indians did not side with the colonists during the Revolutionary War- they aided the British o The British promised them land and other benefits Cherokee Phoenix- proof that the Indians were civilized 1820s- major issue: Native American rights (voided) vs. state rights 1830- Indian Removal Act 1838- Trail of Tears (The Trail Where They Cried) Benjamin Banneker vs. David Walker Differ in tone, genre, audience, purpose Both o Challenge hypocrisy of slavery o Refer to principles solidified in Declaration of Independence o Challenge and refute Jefferson's claims o Appeal to logic, emotions, ethics How? Banneker Walker Civil/diplomatic Aggressive Representative of blacks (like Brown Direct address to African Americans (call is a representative for the Cherokee to action: Kill or be killed) Indians) Indirect address to whites/Jefferson (act Appeal to logic (with gift) justly before God takes his vengeance)- Shelby (198) Biblical Imagery Compared with Brown o All three appeal to logic Brown reflects on past evidence to prove ability to grow and assimilate Brown compares religions- and peace can be found in that similarity Brown appeals to Columbus- who his audience is very familiar with Like Banneker and Walker appeals to Jefferson o Appeal to Pathos Walker's call to action Dewi Brown's A Cherokee Indian 1823 Speaking Tour- the Cherokee can be civilized and wants money from his white audience Native Americans were given rights, but Andrew Jackson had no problem taking them away if they benefitted the white Americans Brown is in a suit and tie- trying to be professional and similar to the Europeans Cherokee Religion and Christianity o The natives have a religion- and this humanizes them (page 551) Strong parallel to Christianity o Roger Williams also discusses this idea- direct parallel Parallel- removal of Indians and the removal of Phillis Wheatley Last passage on 549, "It is a matter of fact, proved by the authority of the first…and that they loved their neighbor as themselves" o Natives are peaceful; Christopher Columbus stated this himself o The audience is very familiar with Columbus o Europeans (the colonists) made the natives hostile and savage like- because before them, they were timid and peaceful (which was stated by Columbus) "Before I proceed however, indulge me in the pleasure of informing you that I am one of the sons of the forest…to avenge the blood of my fathers." (page 549) o Cherokee Nation considers themselves separate than the United States o Not ashamed of his nationality In Class Midterm Review Know the context of the passages given o Not directly where they are from in the text, but a relative line o Also know the context within history Significance o How is this passage significant Thematic Connection o Drawing parallels to other texts Puritan Writers Winthrop Rowlandson Bradstreet Williams (but was kicked out)- went and founded the Baptist religion Columbus Appeals to get money He exaggerates on what he found in America Lies about his success He is happy and slightly arrogant- "I have taken possession" o This brings up the point that the land is already taken o Manifest destiny- God's Will to land Embodies Adam- Columbus named the land and the people (parallel) o Feeling that God has appointed Columbus to do this Some of this compares to Rowlandson- makes appeals to Indians in order to survive o Similar to Columbus appealing for more money o Also, similar in the fact of God's Will Thomas Jefferson comparison…? Dewi Brown- how Columbus describes the people as timid, and then Brown uses this to make his point that the natives are peaceful Winthrop "city upon a hill" Divine Providence Theocracy Community Elisha in the bible- starving child and eat their last mean, but still have an offering for God o Basically, God comes first, and then the citizens of the territory Rowlandson God's Will How she characterizes the natives- heathens, bears, savages --> eventually that changes Relationship with food- eventually she describes the food as savory She was not raped during her captivity because of God's protection o Brings this up to point out that the natives gave her respect and that they are not as animalistic as previously assumed Her captivity was a religious test Williams Democracy "nearer neighborhood" Accepts the natives- purchasing land from them What does the key serve as a metaphor for? Connection to Winthrop- both focus on community Williams and Franklin- religion- church and state should be separated Benjamin Franklin Gender politics and marriage- "must first ask his wife"- him and his wife are true partners Religion- intro with regards to the Bible Looking at his life in technical terms o Thinks he can redeem himself (you can make a mistake on a typewritten, but still revise the mistake Errata Anne Bradstreet 1. "The Author to Her Book" o Her book is her child o Bastard child- during this time, it would not have been kept 2. "Upon the Burning of Our House, July 10th 1666" o God's Will/Divine Providence Struggles with this The home represents her identity- and it just burned to the ground Earthly possessions should not trump what one receives when they get to Heaven Every stanza kind of points this out Banneker Parallels to the Revolutionary War Jefferson's hypocrisy of owning slaves How he addresses Jefferson Wheatley Recognizes that black people can be converted Equal footing How she gives us a different side of slavery- you just became free from England, when will blacks receive their freedom? Humanizes slavery when saying she was "snatched" from her parents o Slave trade affects human beings Dewi Brown Speaking tour in late 1823 and early 1824 How does Brown use rhetorical strategies to plea for them not to be removed from their land o 1820s- major conflict between Native American rights and State rights- particular treaties were broken 1838- first removal of Indians Appeals to the readers with pride and nationality (page 549) o Humanizes them by explaining ancestors and religion o No longer savages because some have accepted Christ- so now we are brothers and sisters in our faith Also directly addresses Thomas Jefferson o Just like banner Memorial of the Cherokee Citizens Quote on page 554- "As weak and poor children are accustomed to look to their guardians and patrons for protection…and have not the arm and power of the rich." The United States is providing for the natives because they are not strong enough to do so by themselves o This forces the Indians to plead for the States to allow them their freedom Owners and Tenants o Logos- speaks about rights and land o The States recognize rights to land- so why not recognize the Indians as owners Indians forced to forfeit their land- they thought they had rights, but why are they not being recognized Quote on page 555- "Brothers- we address you according to usage adopted by our forefathers…as well as to us, to make known why we think the country is ours, and why we wish to remain in peace where we are." o "Brother"- uniting in family
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