PSY 245 (Drugs & Behavior) 2.26.16 Class Lecture Notes
PSY 245 (Drugs & Behavior) 2.26.16 Class Lecture Notes PSY 245
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristi Dorsey on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 245 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Mark Galizio in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act, 2012 Initially named 3 of the bath salts (methcathinone derivatives 2010 – bath salts prevalent in the U.S. o Lack of understanding of these drugs o Frenzied research around the world o Banned so not as common now Synthetic Cathinone Effects Stimulate release of dopamine or block reuptake Produce same physical effects of cocaine and amphetamines o Alertness and arousal (moderate doses) o Confusion, paranoia, panic, & seizures (high doses) Numerous overdose deaths o Nobody knows the right doses o Can get advice from users and dealers NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) 2014 – reports craving and dependence o One of the first studies on bath salts Different brain mechanisms because molecules have been changed So far bath salts affect the dopamine pathway o Increase dopamine levels like cocaine and meth More similar to amphetamines because longer acting o Measure in hours, not minutes, like cocaine Bath Salts Adverse Effects Tachycardia Elevated blood pressure Anxiety and panic attacks Extreme paranoia Violent behavior o More common in bath salts than amphetamines o Same thing happened in 1960s with amphetamines Acute psychosis (stimulant psychosis) Self-mutilation (not cannibalism) Bath Salts in NC Oct. 2010 – NC State student and army enlistee from highschool found dead on a fire escape from a bath salts overdose May 2011 – Wesley Shelton o Stole care o Rammed it in front of convenience store o Stole armfuls of bath salts o Under the influence of bath salts April 3 , 2011 – Thomas Grooms o Killed father and son Ronald & Trey Doolittle while cycling on River Rd. o Powder found in mustache and car Suspected cocaine o Turned out to be bath salts o Indicted for 2 degree murder Bath Salts since the 2012 Act > 70 other cathinones seized as of Jan. 2015 o Know nothing about what these 70 do Make one drug illegal and chemists come up with a new one Difficult to prosecute a new compound M-PEP, a-PVP (gravel) & 8 other cathinones temporarily banned in 2014 using emergency powers Evidence that it’s decreasing the use of bath salts Calls to Poison Centers – Bath Salts 2009—0 2010---304 2011---6137 2012—2691 2013---996 2014---587 Captgaon (Phenethylline) The “ISIS” drug Amphetamine-like stimulant involved in several terrorists attacks o Marketed legally in the Middle East as a prescription o Overflowing in Syria & produced legally o Black market for the drug as well o Not used in the U.S. because it’s not as potent or effective as amphetamines Related to Paris bombings ISIS terrorists looked like “zombies” when they committed the murders Syringes were littering the area Concerns about whether or not ISIS members were using drugs Found out from an autopsy that none of the terrorists have tested positive for the drug Methylxanthines Caffeine Most widely used drug in the world Native to coffee bean that grows on coffee tree in the Middle East Also found in the Kola Nut native to Africa Other plants contain this mild stimulant chemical 2 Types o Theophylline Principal ingredient in tea Cultivated in India and China Adopted by the British Made from plant that contains small portion of caffeine o Theobromine Stimulant drug found naturally in chocolate Translated to mean “food of the Gods” Dosing Equivalents of Caffeine Cup of coffee 100-150 mg Cup of tea 40-100 mg Cola drink 15-25 Energy drinks o Red bull 80 mg o Rockstar/Jolt Monster 20-229 mg 5-hour energy 207-242 mg – issues with overdoses Starbucks double shot 162 mg Energy Drinks 20,000+ ER visits linked to ED FDA investigating 13 deaths in 2013 o Cardiac failure linked to cocaine overdose LD50 for caffeine if 5 grams for young, healthy adults o Dose that’s fatal for 50% of the population o 5 grams of caffeine = 50 cups of coffee & 20 5-Hour Energies Most deaths among people sensitive to cardiovascular effects Caffeine Effects Increase alertness & arousal Insomnia Sympathomimetic People at risk for heart attack are vulnerable Caffeine Neural Mechanism Blocks adenosine o Inhibitory neurotransmitter o Because caffeine blocks it, it indirectly stimulates the CNS o Function in brain isn’t completely understood but primarily inhibitory o Cocaine & amphetamines act on dopaminergic pathway so they have a high abuse potential Caffeine doesn’t give you that shortcut to the pleasure center Because it isn’t dopaminergic, it’s abuse potential is lower Caffeine Withdrawal Comer, Haney, Foltin & Fischman (1997) o Double-blind, placebo control study o Participants drank 6+ cups of coffee a day o Brought them into sleep lab o Each morning when they woke up they got 2 cups of coffee Somedays they got normal coffee (100-150 mg of caffeine) On those days, coffee drinkers reported feeling normal Somedays they were given coffee flavored water Reported a headache when they received a placebo They wanted an Excedrin (contains aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine) or Aspirin In the same way that dependence is defined in other drugs as the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms, you can become addicted to coffee o General use of caffeine benign for most people o Not to worried, despite withdrawal symptoms Headache, sleepy, yawning, miserable Tobacco Early History “The use of tobacco is growing greatly and conquers men with certain secret pleasure so that those who have once become accustomed thereto, can later hardly be restrained therefrom…” (Sir Francis Bacon) o First clear statement in the English language of addiction Tobacco native from Northern South America up through Central America and the Southeastern states of North America First recognized for its psychoactive powers by Native Americans o Located from Southeast Coast down into the Amazon Basin o Played an important role in many of the Shamanistic Ceremonies o Smoked by Native Americans The first Europeans to encounter tobacco were the crew of Christopher Columbus o Reported finding back to Europe o Native Americans would: Take a clay bowl and put vegetable materials in it Ignite the material Breath in flames Belch out cloud of smoke o Brought huge quantities back with them o Gradually introduced throughout Europe Tobacco Late History 1940’s – nearly 50% of American adults are smokers o Invention of cigarettes in 1930’s – 1940’s o Popular activity throughout Europe and the U.S. o Approximately 60% of American men were daily smokers and 40% of women 1950’s – concerns about health o First reports of lung cancer released o Advertisements changed to the idea that physicians loved a certain brand (EX: Luckeis) 1960’s & 1970’s – wooing female smokers o Women = to men in rate of lung cancer now o Surgeon General’s report released First medical evidence that cigarette smoking was linked to lung cancer and heart disease Consequence was ban of cigarette advertising on TV Described as the most successful public health program in our nation’s history 1990’s – advertisements towards keeping guys interested in smoking o Marlboros one of the best selling Smoking Prevalence Among U.S. Adults – how did we get to where we are today? 1955 – rates dropped to 43% 1955-1965 – huge drop in rates 1965-1970 – another drop in rates 1970-1980 – another huge drop More gradual but strong trend until 2014 o Down to 20% of American adults o Declining among young people o Public health education & legal interventions Most successful – restricting where you could use tobacco Due to the finding that second-hand smoke can cause lung cancer Nicotine Paradox Paradox = stimulant effects & calming effects Cigarette smokers usually have a cigarette first thing in the morning to help them wake up o May smoke when tired or bored o Typically report stimulant effects Smoking when anxious associated with calming effects o Not sure how it can produce paradoxical effects Neuropharmacological Hypothesis for Nicotine Paradox – Nicotine Actions Stimulants norepinephrine Also mimics acetylcholine o Some acetylcholine receptors are nicotinic receptors o These particular receptors are found in the neuromuscular junction First it stimulates the receptors Then it blocks the receptors so it relaxes muscles because acetylcholine lingers at the receptor cite for longer Dopamine? o Does not directly affect dopamine o Evidence that when you take nicotine, dopamine levels rise o Acts indirectly to enhance dopamine o This is why it’s addictive
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