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Psych 105 week 9 notes

by: Elizabeth Guzman

Psych 105 week 9 notes 105

Marketplace > Washington State University > 105 > Psych 105 week 9 notes
Elizabeth Guzman

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About this Document

Thinking and language
Introductory Psychology
Mycah Harrold
Class Notes
psych, 105, thinking, Language
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Guzman on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 105 at Washington State University taught by Mycah Harrold in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.


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Date Created: 02/26/16
How do Why do we think we think Mental Solve proble images ms To Concep make ts decisio ns What is thinking? Cognition= mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge Thinking= manipulating How do we think? Mental images= to visually picture something Concepts= a mental category of objects based on Formal concepts: formed by rules/defining features (ex. A triangle has 3 sides) Natural concepts: formed through everyday experience Prototypes= we compare objects (fruit: apple vs coconut) Exemplars= individual instances of a concept/category, held in memory Why do we think? To solve problems-obstacles Formal fixedness= viewing objects as only able to function in the way they are usually used (reusing plastic bags) Mental sets= persist in trying to solve problems using strategies that have worked in the past (fixing something the same way) Strategies -trail + error= attempting different solution until one works -algorithms= specific rule, procedure, method that will eventually be correct (rubrics cube) Insight= sudden realization of a solution Intuition= forming a solution without being able to specify how Heuristics = rule of thumb, may or may not work Availability heuristic: likelihood estimate based on how readily available other instances of the event come to mind Representations heuristic: likelihood estimation based on how similar the event is to the prototype of that event To make decisions Single finger model- looking at only one choose (price, color, size) Additive feature model- systematically evaluate the important features, list features, rate each alternative, add up ratings Elimination by aspect- list all important factors in order, start with the most important factor, eliminate all alternatives without that factor Illusory correlations (A heuristic) = when a correlation appears but it is not there Superstition: myth, magic, irrational thoughts (wearing a winning team jersey) Language Our perceptions are governed by the rules of grammar (the word “the” is not used on a sentence twice) We only see what we want to see or what makes sense to us We remember what fits our expectations of language and sentences -A system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of results in meaningful systems Symbols= connection between the word and the object/principle can be arbitrary (the word a ton is small itself, but has a big concept) or indicative (“boom”) symbols and their meanings are shared Language fallows rules (word order = subject, action, object) Creative + generative (an infinite number of phrases/sentences to be made) Displacement (can communicate about abstract things (catfish), or things that aren’t physically presented (cars))


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