Pre-Modern World History
Pre-Modern World History HIST-1111
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Notetaker on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST-1111 at Augusta State University taught by Sandrine Catris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Pre-Mod World Civilization in Global Studies at Augusta State University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
1 PreModern World History Feb. 2226 Notes Monday: Changes in Political and Religious Realms Eastern Zhou Warring Period (401223 BC) o Originally, there were 70 small states. Then, after the conflict it became 7. The Qin dynasty conquered the Zhou dynasty in 221 BC Because of the religious belief in conflict in the afterlife, Qin created lifesize terracotta warriors to put in his tomb. During the Qin dynasty, the trade and military technology was further developed: o Crossbow o Infantry & Calvary Although this time period was very chaotic because of the wars, it developed many new philosophies that are still used today. New Ideas and the “100” Masters Creativity and philosophies became a priority so that the political leaders who lost ground could become higher again o Confucius/Confucianism o 100 Schools of thought: “The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophers and schools that flourished 2 from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the spring and autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.” Mohism (high competition): “Mohism or Moism was a Chinese philosophy developed by the followers of Mozi (also referred to as Mo Tzu (Master Mo), Latinized as Micius), 470 BC–c.391 BC.” o Mozi was critical of states and stressed good philosophy o He was a pacifist o Appealed to citydwellers o Concerned about the moral character of the people Confucius and Confucianism If people adopt certain values, society will be ordered He didn’t intend to create a new school of thought but to revive old teachings in ancient China. “The Golden Age” 3 Values: o Li (ritual): death, birth, ancestor worship o Ren (humanness): how we relate and converse with others o Xiao Filial Piety: devotion to family, honor by marriage and having kids, building the family tree 5 Relationships: 3 o Parent, Child o Minister, Ruler o Husband, Wife o Older & Younger Brother o Friend, Friend All of these relationships have the higher in charge of the lower. It is unequal. Except for friends, that is the only equal relationship The state should be ruled like a family. Father/Husband (emperor) at top, and so on. Perfectibility of Man: If you follow Confucianism you can attain perfection o Selfreflection and alteration o Proper rituals o Proper education Mencius who was a disciple of Confucius believed that man was born without sin, but society corrupts man Leaders should be chosen by merit, not birthright They must lead morality by example, not by punishment and humiliation Daoism “Daoism, also spelled Taoism, indigenous religio[us] philosophical tradition that has shaped Chinese life for more than 2,000 years. In the broadest sense, a Daoist attitude toward life can 4 be seen in the accepting and yielding, the joyful and carefree sides of the Chinese character, an attitude that offsets and complements the moral and dutyconscious, austere and purposeful character ascribed to Confucianism. Daoism is also characterized by a positive, active attitude toward the occult and the metaphysical (theories on the nature of reality), whereas the agnostic, pragmatic Confucian tradition considers these issues of only marginal importance, although the reality of such issues is, by most Confucians, not denied.” Philosophy my Laozi and Zhuangzi Legalism (from writings of Xunzi and Han Fei): “a classical school of Chinese philosophy. Its reformers focused on the centralized management of personnel through protocol and political technique.” Wednesday: Daoism Human interaction causes disorder On government: 5 o Equality prevents rivalry; equal value in goods prevents thievery; not showing people things to excite them (like gold) will prevent mind “disorder” o “Therefore the sage, in the exercise of his government, empties their minds, fills their bellies, weakens their wills, and strengthens their bones.” Possibly: empties minds of preconceptions or anxieties, feeds them, weakens their will (selfishness, individuality), and strengthens their bones On war: o When there is noninterference, the Dao prevails and there is no war. When the Dao is ignored and man does interfere, war breaks out. Dao values gentleness, war is the worst calamity, and those who are against war are the ones who win New Worlds of South Asia New polities o The Vedic people migrated here around 600 BC and established new cities, trade routes, and expanded rice cultivation. “The Warring States period (Chinese: 戰戰戰戰; pinyin: Zhànguó shídài) was an era in ancient Chinese history following the Spring 6 and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.” Two major kinds of states: o Hereditary monarchs (rulers by birth) o Elected Oligarchies (officials which were voted in; an oligarchy is a clique of privileged rulers) Led by warriors and officials called collectively as a social group the Kshatriya. Kshatriya oligarchs controlled the land and other resources and oversaw slaves and alien workers, fulfilling similar duties as the hereditary kings Raja (king), a title assumed by both the rulers of the kingdoms and the citizens of the Kshatriya City states elected & ruled collectively There are many folks tales about this group Challenges to Brahmans Brahmans: a member of the highest Hindu caste, that of the priesthood 7 When the people became more knowledgeable it was a threat to the Brahmans. They believed in a caste system, they didn’t want the people to mix or become higher. So, they endeavored to control it by establishing the idea of a king endowed with divine power The citystates (Kshatriyas) began to resent the Brahmans’ claim of divinity, which provoked challenges to their domination Buddhism and Jainism The first Buddha was Siddhartha Gautama, and there are different dates for him: 536 BC, 480 BC, 400 BC, etc. o “Siddhartha Gautama, who would one day become known as Buddha ("enlightened one" or "the awakened"), lived in Nepal during the 6th to 4th century B.C. His father was king who ruled the tribe, known to be economically poor and on the outskirts geographically. His mother died seven days after giving birth to him, but a holy man prophesized great things for the young Siddhartha: He would either be a great king or military leader or he would be a great spiritual leader. To keep his son from witnessing the miseries and suffering of the world, Siddhartha's father raised him in opulence in a palace built just for the boy 8 and sheltered him from knowledge of religion and human hardship. According to custom, he married at the age of 16, but his life of total seclusion continued for another 13 years. The prince reached his late 20s with little experience of the world outside the walls of his opulent palaces, but one day he ventured out beyond the palace walls and was quickly confronted with the realities of human frailty: He saw a very old man, and Siddhartha's charioteer explained that all people grow old. Questions about all he had not experienced led him to take more journeys of exploration, and on these subsequent trips he encountered a diseased man, a decaying corpse and an ascetic. The charioteer explained that the ascetic had renounced the world to seek release from the human fear of death and suffering. Siddhartha was overcome by these sights, and the next day, at age 29, he left his kingdom, wife and son to lead an ascetic life, and determine a way to relieve the universal suffering that he now understood to be one of the defining traits 9 of humanity. For the next six years, Siddhartha lived an ascetic life and partook in its practices, studying and meditating using the words of various religious teachers as his guide. Siddhartha sat under the Bodhi tree, vowing to not get up until the truths he sought came to him, and he meditated until the sun came up the next day. He remained there for several days, purifying his mind, seeing his entire life, and previous lives, in his thoughts. And soon a picture began to form in his mind of all that occurred in the universe, and Siddhartha finally saw the answer to the questions of suffering that he had been seeking for so many years. In that moment of pure enlightenment, Siddhartha Gautama became the Buddha ("he who is awake").” Dissenters Buddha spread his enlightenment in the colloquial Sanskrit “Buddha objected to the Brahman rituals and sacrifices and denied their underlying cosmology (a branch of metaphysics devoted to understanding the order of the universe) and their preference for kingshipp that kept the priestly class in power. His teachings 10 provided the people of South Asia and elsewhere with alternatives to established social and religious traditions.” Vardhamana Mahavira (c. 540468 BC) and Jainism o “Jainism, traditionally known as Jain dharma, is an ancient Indian religion that prescribes the path of nonviolence (ahiṃsā) towards all living beings. Jain philosophy distinguishes the soul from the body (matter). Jains believe that all living beings are really soul; intrinsically perfect and immortal.” o Vardhamana Mahavira, the twentyfourth and last Tirthankara of the Jains is the most important figure in the history of Jainism 4 Truths of Buddhism: o Life, from birth to death, is full of suffering o All sufferings are caused by desires o The only way to rise above suffering is to renounce desire o Only through adherence to the Noble Eightfold Path can individuals rid themselves of desires and thus reach a state of contentment o The Noble Eightfold Path represents wisdom, ethical behavior, and mental discipline Buddhism Buddhism and Hinduism both believe in reincarnation Buddhism didn’t support the caste system 11 Buddhism taught that there should be compassion between lower and higher born people Friday: We went over the primary documents in chapter 5, and each group analyzed each document.