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Pre-Modern World History

by: Sierra Notetaker

Pre-Modern World History HIST-1111

Sierra Notetaker
GPA 4.0
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These notes cover what we went over this week.
Pre-Mod World Civilization
Sandrine Catris
Class Notes
World History, history




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Notetaker on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST-1111 at Augusta State University taught by Sandrine Catris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Pre-Mod World Civilization in Global Studies at Augusta State University.


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Date Created: 02/26/16
1 Pre­Modern World History Feb. 22­26 Notes Monday: Changes in Political and Religious Realms Eastern Zhou  Warring Period (401­223 BC) o Originally, there were 70 small states. Then, after the  conflict it became 7.  The Qin dynasty conquered the Zhou dynasty in 221 BC  Because of the religious belief in conflict in the afterlife, Qin  created life­size terra­cotta warriors to put in his tomb.   During the Qin dynasty, the trade and military technology  was further developed: o Cross­bow o Infantry & Calvary  Although this time period was very chaotic because of the  wars, it developed many new philosophies that are still used  today.  New Ideas and the “100” Masters  Creativity and philosophies became a priority so that the  political leaders who lost ground could become higher again o Confucius/Confucianism  o 100 Schools of thought:  “The Hundred Schools of  Thought were philosophers and schools that flourished  2 from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the spring and  autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.”  Mohism (high competition): “Mohism or Moism was a  Chinese philosophy developed by the followers of Mozi  (also referred to as Mo Tzu (Master Mo), Latinized as  Micius), 470 BC–c.391 BC.”   o Mozi was critical of states and stressed good  philosophy o He was a pacifist o Appealed to city­dwellers o Concerned about the moral character of the people  Confucius and Confucianism  If people adopt certain values, society will be ordered  He didn’t intend to create a new school of thought but to revive old teachings in ancient China. “The Golden Age”  3 Values: o Li (ritual): death, birth, ancestor worship o Ren (humanness): how we relate and converse with others o Xiao Filial Piety: devotion to family, honor by marriage and  having kids, building the family tree  5 Relationships: 3 o Parent, Child o Minister, Ruler o Husband, Wife o Older & Younger Brother o Friend, Friend  All of these relationships have the higher in charge of  the lower. It is unequal. Except for friends, that is the  only equal relationship  The state should be ruled like a family.  Father/Husband (emperor) at top, and so on.   Perfectibility of Man: If you follow Confucianism you can attain  perfection o Self­reflection and alteration o Proper rituals o Proper education   Mencius who was a disciple of Confucius believed that man was  born without sin, but society corrupts man   Leaders should be chosen by merit, not birthright  They must lead morality by example, not by punishment and  humiliation  Daoism  “Daoism, also spelled Taoism, indigenous religio[us]­ philosophical tradition that has shaped Chinese life for more than  2,000 years. In the broadest sense, a Daoist attitude toward life can 4 be seen in the accepting and yielding, the joyful and carefree sides  of the Chinese character, an attitude that offsets and complements  the moral and duty­conscious, austere and purposeful character  ascribed to Confucianism. Daoism is also characterized by a  positive, active attitude toward the occult and the metaphysical  (theories on the nature of reality), whereas the agnostic, pragmatic  Confucian tradition considers these issues of only marginal  importance, although the reality of such issues is, by most  Confucians, not denied.”  Philosophy my Laozi and Zhuangzi   Legalism (from writings of Xunzi and Han Fei): “a classical school of Chinese philosophy. Its reformers focused on the centralized  management of personnel through protocol and political  technique.” Wednesday:  Daoism  Human interaction causes disorder  On government: 5 o Equality prevents rivalry; equal value in goods prevents  thievery; not showing people things to excite them (like gold) will prevent mind “disorder”  o “Therefore the sage, in the exercise of his government,  empties their minds, fills their bellies, weakens their wills,  and strengthens their bones.”  Possibly: empties minds of preconceptions or anxieties, feeds them, weakens their will (selfishness, individuality), and  strengthens their bones  On war: o When there is non­interference, the Dao prevails and there is  no war. When the Dao is ignored and man does interfere, war breaks out. Dao values gentleness, war is the worst calamity,  and those who are against war are the ones who win New Worlds of South Asia  New polities o The Vedic people migrated here around 600 BC and  established new cities, trade routes, and expanded rice  cultivation.  “The Warring States period (Chinese: 戰戰戰戰; pinyin: Zhànguó  shídài) was an era in ancient Chinese history following the Spring  6 and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest  that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which  ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first  unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.”  Two major kinds of states: o Hereditary monarchs (rulers by birth) o Elected Oligarchies (officials which were voted in; an  oligarchy is a clique of privileged rulers)  Led by warriors and officials called collectively as a  social group the Kshatriya. Kshatriya oligarchs  controlled the land and other resources and oversaw  slaves and alien workers, fulfilling similar duties as the  hereditary kings   Raja (king), a title assumed by both the rulers of the  kingdoms and the citizens of the Kshatriya  City states elected & ruled collectively  There are many folks tales about this group Challenges to Brahmans Brahmans:   a   member   of   the   highest   Hindu   caste,   that   of   the priesthood 7 When the people became more knowledgeable it was a threat to the Brahmans. They believed in a caste system, they didn’t want the people to mix or become higher. So, they endeavored to control it by establishing the idea of a king endowed with divine power The city­states (Kshatriyas) began to resent the Brahmans’ claim of divinity, which provoked challenges to their domination Buddhism and Jainism   The first Buddha was Siddhartha Gautama, and there are different  dates for him: 536 BC, 480 BC, 400 BC, etc. o “Siddhartha Gautama, who would one day become known as  Buddha ("enlightened one" or "the awakened"), lived in Nepal  during the 6th to 4th century B.C. His father was king who ruled the tribe, known to be economically poor and on the outskirts  geographically. His mother died seven days after giving birth to  him, but a holy man prophesized great things for the young  Siddhartha: He would either be a great king or military leader or he would be a great spiritual leader. To keep his son from  witnessing the miseries and suffering of the world, Siddhartha's  father raised him in opulence in a palace built just for the boy  8 and sheltered him from knowledge of religion and human  hardship. According to custom, he married at the age of 16, but  his life of total seclusion continued for another 13 years. The  prince reached his late 20s with little experience of the world  outside the walls of his opulent palaces, but one day he ventured out beyond the palace walls and was quickly confronted with  the realities of human frailty: He saw a very old man, and  Siddhartha's charioteer explained that all people grow old.  Questions about all he had not experienced led him to take more journeys of exploration, and on these subsequent trips he  encountered a diseased man, a decaying corpse and an ascetic.  The charioteer explained that the ascetic had renounced the  world to seek release from the human fear of death and  suffering. Siddhartha was overcome by these sights, and the  next day, at age 29, he left his kingdom, wife and son to lead an  ascetic life, and determine a way to relieve the universal  suffering that he now understood to be one of the defining traits  9 of humanity. For the next six years, Siddhartha lived an ascetic  life and partook in its practices, studying and meditating using  the words of various religious teachers as his guide. Siddhartha  sat under the Bodhi tree, vowing to not get up until the truths he  sought came to him, and he meditated until the sun came up the  next day. He remained there for several days, purifying his  mind, seeing his entire life, and previous lives, in his thoughts.  And soon a picture began to form in his mind of all that  occurred in the universe, and Siddhartha finally saw the answer  to the questions of suffering that he had been seeking for so  many years. In that moment of pure enlightenment, Siddhartha  Gautama became the Buddha ("he who is awake").”  Dissenters Buddha spread his enlightenment in the colloquial Sanskrit  “Buddha objected to the Brahman rituals and sacrifices and denied  their underlying cosmology (a branch of metaphysics devoted to  understanding the order of the universe) and their preference for  kingship­p that kept the priestly class in power. His teachings  10 provided the people of South Asia and elsewhere with alternatives to  established social and religious traditions.”  Vardhamana Mahavira (c. 540­468 BC) and Jainism  o “Jainism, traditionally known as Jain dharma, is an ancient  Indian religion that prescribes the path of non­violence  (ahiṃsā) towards all living beings. Jain philosophy  distinguishes the soul from the body (matter). Jains believe that  all living beings are really soul; intrinsically perfect and  immortal.” o Vardhamana Mahavira, the twenty­fourth and last Tirthankara  of the Jains is the most important figure in the history of Jainism 4 Truths of Buddhism: o Life, from birth to death, is full of suffering o All sufferings are caused by desires o The only way to rise above suffering is to renounce desire o Only through adherence to the Noble Eightfold Path can  individuals rid themselves of desires and thus reach a state of  contentment  o The Noble Eightfold Path represents wisdom, ethical behavior,  and mental discipline  Buddhism  Buddhism and Hinduism both believe in reincarnation   Buddhism didn’t support the caste system 11  Buddhism taught that there should be compassion between lower and  higher born people Friday: We went over the primary documents in chapter 5, and each group  analyzed each document.


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