Developmental notes week 6
Developmental notes week 6 PSYC 3120
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Chapter 9- Middle Childhood: Physical and Cognitive Development 2/23/16 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) • Externalizing behavior disorder • 3-5% of school aged children • Boys diagnosed 5 to 10 times more often • Normal intelligence • Etiology (cause) à heavy genetic influences (parents or siblings) o Early theory: minimal brain dysfunction o Current theory: neurological imbalance, frontal lobe dysfunction or neurotransmitter problems • Symptoms (three categories) o Inattention o Hyperactivity o Impulsivity • Diagnostic criteria for ADHD o Symptoms must persist for at least 6 months o Symptoms should have begun before age 7 o Symptoms present in at least two situations (example: clinical testing and home life) o Disorder impairs functioning (example: problems in school, getting along with other children so it affects their social skills) o Symptoms not explained by another disorder such as: § Anxiety § Schizophrenia § Mania § Dissociative disorder § Personality disorder § Developmental disorder • Coexisting Problems (Comorbidity) o Externalizing behavior disorders § Oppositional defiant disorder § Conduct disorder o Learning disabilities o School underachievement o Poor self esteem • ADHD – Inattention o Fails to pay close attention to details o Makes careless errors o Does not appear to listen o Does not follow through on instructions or chores o Has trouble organizing tasks or activities o Dislikes or avoids sustained mental effort o Loses materials o Easily distracted o Forgetful • ADHD – Hyperactivity o Squirms or fidgets o Inappropriately leaves seat o Inappropriately runs and climbs o Has trouble quietly playing o Appears driven or “on the go” o Talks excessively • ADHD – Impulsivity o Answers questions before asked o Has trouble waiting turn o Interrupts or intrudes on others • Functioning o Poor social skills o Messy appearance o Physical aggression o Discipline difficulties o Poor school performance o Increased family stress • Treatment o Drugs § Ritalin (methylphenidate) § Dexedrine o Negatives to drug therapy § Does not work for everyone § Drug must be at optimal level § Long-term improvement questionable o Behavioral Parent Training § Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) • Child directed interaction o Praise, Reflect, Imitate, Describe, Enjoyment o Don’t give commands, ask questions, criticize • Parent directed interaction o Social Skills Training/Behavior Training Chapter 9- Middle Childhood: Social and Personality Development 2/25/16 Lawrence Kohlberg • Cognitive-developmental approach to moral development • Clinical interview procedure • Moral dilemmas • “Heinz dilemma” o Value of the law vs. value of human life o http://www.simplypsychology.org/kohlberg.html • Reasoning is more important than content • Stages are universal • Do not reach the highest stage until adolescence • Not everyone reaches the highest stage • Kohlberg’s levels of morality o Level 1: Pre Conventional Morality (Self-interest) § Stage 1: punishment • “I won’t do it, because I don’t want to get punished” § Stage 2: reward • “I won’t do it, because I want a reward” o Level 2: Conventional morality (social approval) § Stage 3: interpersonal relations • “I won’t do it, because I want people to like me” § Stage 4: social order • “I won’t do it, because it would break the law” o Level 3: Post Conventional morality (abstract ideals) § Stage 5: social contract • “I won’t do it, because I’m obliged not to” • Also might condemn themselves for not doing it § Stage 6: universal rights • “I won’t do it, because it’s not right, no matter what others say” • Moral development is very slow and gradual o Stages 1 and 2 decrease in early adolescence o Stage 3 increases through middle adolescence and then declines o Stage 4 reasoning rises over the teenage years o Few people move on to Stage 5 o Stage 6 is a matter of speculation • Moral judgment does not equal moral behavior • Moral reasoning is highly correlated with IQ, educational level and perspective taking skills • Child rearing practices help to enhance moral reasoning • Criticisms o Focused on social justice o Tested primarily on males- there should be a different theory for women Carole Gilligan • Female moral development • Rather than social justice, she looked at compassionate concern • Gilligan’s 3 stages of moral development for women o Orientation toward individual survival o Goodness as self sacrifice o Morality of nonviolence Sense of self • Self esteem: tied to positive or negative emotion o I’m really proud that I’m a great soccer player • Self concept: less emotional o You identify as an athlete • Influences on self concept o Academic o Social o Emotional o Physical o • Influences on self esteem o Child-rearing practices o Attributions § Mastery-oriented attributions à I saw my cousin riding a bike without training wheels, so I can do it too § Learned helplessness à I didn’t do well on that spelling test, so I’m never going to be able to o • Children start to make social comparisons at this age as well o Downward social comparisons • Peer relationships o Peer groups § Girls tend to be friends with other girls § Boys tend to be friends with other boys § Usually 3-4 children in this kind of group § Members want to stay together and exclude others from joining o Middle childhood = strong desire for group membership o Aggression § Boys will actually physically hurt others § Girls tend to be much more passive-aggressive
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