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Module 8: the Crusades

by: Corinne_Master_Note-scribbler

Module 8: the Crusades ArH 358U-001

GPA 3.2

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Notes on all D2L uploaded documents for this module.
Romanesque Art
Nicolette S. Trahoulia
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Corinne_Master_Note-scribbler on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ArH 358U-001 at Portland State University taught by Nicolette S. Trahoulia in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Romanesque Art in Art History at Portland State University.

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Date Created: 02/26/16
Art of the Crusades Covers art of the Crusader states set up in the Holy Land during the Middle Ages. Architecture and it's decoration in the Holy Land, as well as objects associated with the Crusades. Much of this material is made by Muslim artists for their Christian patrons and often exhibits an interesting mix of artistic languages. 1. Define Crusade a. concerning expeditions aimed at Jerusalem or the Holy Land b. focus on authorization and procedure; i. pope authorization? ii. participants vows? iii. spiritual privileges? c. assertion from scholars that the characteristics of crusading were so diffuse throughout medieval culture that it is impossible and ultimately misleading to attempt to define what was or was not a crusade. d. targets; i. Muslims, areas of Muslim governance ii. Christian ‘heretics’ 1. Christian Byzantine Empire 2. political opponents of the papacy in general 2. Timeline a. First Crusade i. preached by Pope Urban II in 1095-99 1. conquered city of Jerusalem 2. purpose of rescuing Christians and returning Holy places into Christian hands 3. most successful (according to European participants) 4. Levant (region at the end of easter Mediterranean) a. creation of small polities; crusader states b. governed by European nobles b. Second Crusade 1146-9 i. three fronts 1. against Muslims in the Levant 2. against pagans in northern Europe 3. against Muslims on the Iberian peninsula ii. championed by Bernard of Clairvaux 1. attempted to take (modern) Damascus, Syria iii. failure 1. Muslims recapturing of Jerusalem c. Third Crusade 1189-92 i. Muslims gained Cyprus and Acre d. Fourth Crusade 1202 i. goal of taking Egypt ii. turned siege upon Byzantium’s capital; Constantinople (Istanbul) 1. sacked by Venetians, and the French 3. Crusaders a. everyone of all classes i. spiritual and social rewards on offer for crusading 1. crusade leaders never able to fully stop people of both sexes and all classes from accompanying armed parties on crusade b. specifically forbidden; i. those who had taken religious vows (priests, monks) ii. found a way to go anyway 4. Art a. little surviving from the Crusade period i. destruction and reconstruction of various structures ii. sacking of towns and cities iii. general loss by war iv. written records of artistic encounters surviving 1. pilgrims claim of beautiful decoration a. churches and secular structures b. difficult to identify i. incorporated into buildings that were modified and overlaid with work of later centuries c. Church of Nativity in Bethlehem i. mosaics from crusader period 1. life of Christ 2. Ecumenical Councils and ancestors of Christ 3. Byzantine style a. commissioned by Kings of Jerusalem i. Baldwin III or Amalric I ii. married Byzantine princesses b. choice of Greek artists ii. best preserved churches in the Holy Land 1. survived destruction at hands of Persians and Muslims 2. floor tiles date from the reign of Constantine a. allegedly commissioned by St.Helena b. (still there today!) d. wall painting popular i. vulnerable to obliteration, easily painted over 1. method of eliminating unwanted decoration that also inadvertently preserves it for the archaeologist ii. four important frescoes from crusader period found recently 1. at Crac de Chevaliers iii. suggestion of Byzantine artists, trained in Byzantine school 1. used for painting 2. subject dictated by Western traditions e. manuscript illustration i. dominated by Western craftsmen ii. Scriptorium established by the canons of the Church of Holy Sepulcher 1. workshop produced large number of works 2. little surviving 3. Melisende Psalter Hedwig Glass Beaker 1. from central Europe a. probably made by a Muslim craftsman in Syria or Egypt 2. decorum a. Christian symbols; i. lion, griffin, eagle, a tree b. deep-cut style of glass suggest Syrian origin 3. fourteen Hedwig beakers found in Europe a. made especially for Christian market 4. Saint Hedwig 1174-1243 a. drank water from a similar glass; miraculously turned to wine at first touch to lips 5. transference from Holy Land to Europe a. trade between Christian and Islamic countries flourished regardless of Crusades b. Islamic glassware particularly in demand i. Italian ports of Venice and Genoa rich in trade with Islamic world Church of Nativity, Bethlehem 1. original entrance a. large door, visible alterations i. 12th c lowered and created arch ii. 15th c lowered into small rectangular hole 1. preservation from horses and carriages 2. visitation to cave a. where jesus was born i. directly below, birthplace of Christ 3. lavish in decorum a. pilars i. stone from Bethlehem 1. does not exist anymore 2. 6th c origin ii. frescoed slightly remaining Old City of Acre 1. City beneath a city 2. port city 3. northern Israel 4. over 5000 yrs old 5. current town between 18th and 19th c 6. entrance city to Jerusalem a. fought over 7. crusaders fort discovered in 1950 a. built by crusaders b. entire city found under ground c. Beautiful Hall i. prayer room d. remains of shops i. shopping street ii. unique images on walls e. canals and hidden tunnels f. only uncovered 2% of unknown city Freer Canteen 1. subject of frieze of horsemen below band of saints a. Western origin b. representative of the Crusaders i. Mohammedans are represented by a single figure wearing a turban aimed at with a crossbow 1. similar garb of saints above 2. subject a tournament or battle between Muslims and Christians a. Second Lateran Council in 1139 i. use of crossbow prohibited amongst Christians as a weapon 1. allowed against unbelievers ii. decree of Innocent III 1198-1216 b. among Muslims i. crossbow not always used in battle 1. “the bunduq was mainly used for hunting...and, being not a very effective weapon in battle, only rarely against troops.” c. applies to period during creation of Canteen 3. crossbow does not signify battle scene a. other symbols of lances decorated with banners i. pennants? ii. “on special parades the khassakiyya used to adorn them with streamers as often as not made of colored sik...another kind, used by Crusaders as well, is known as qantariyya” iii. flags as insignia of war 1. “the great number of flags, their manifold colors, and their length, are intended to cause fright, nothing more. Fright produces greater aggressiveness in the soul.” iv. banners symbolic of and important to battle 1. not actual weapons 4. Most likely a ceremonial scene a. pomp and circumstance of military display are shown b. banners outnumbering few (crossbow) weapons c. equestrian art pinnacle reached during 12th and 13th c’s d. aesthetic considerations, no acts of war e. horsemen take part in parade before battle i. official mission ii. tournament iii. hunt iv. processive show of military Melisende Psalter 1. daughter of Baldwin II, mother of Baldwin III 2. early period of Crusading illumination 3. Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem 1131-43 4. Queen Melisende a. 1105-60 b. Frankish princess c. husband, Fulk V of Anjou i. joint rulers of Holy Lands (Crusader Kingdom) 1131 ii. at war, Melisende victory d. great patron of the arts i. found abbey at Bethany ii. commissioned psalter 5. death of Fulk V a. Melisende as regent for 13yr old son i. later Baldwin III b. 1152 Baldwin III split of realm i. Melisende rule over Judea and Samaria ii. Baldwin III rule over north 6. define psalter a. Psalms 150 ancient songs, part of Old Testament i. composed by King David ii. in Middle Ages - formed fundamental part of Christian and Jewish worship iii. many learned to read through Psalms b. often written separately from the rest of the Bible i. preceded by a calendar of the Church’s feast-days ii. followed by types of prayers 1. included death of Baldwin II; not Fulk V a. Fulk V still alive for commission b. possibly a gift to Melisende 7. originally encased in two ivory plaques a. now detached b. carving of a bird labeled as ‘herodius’ i. french vernacular; bird also called a foulque, rather obvious allusion to Fulk c. unique synthesis of East and West i. text 1. liberally highlighted with gold lettering 2. conforms to standards of the Holy Sepulcher 3. style and script closest to contemporary French or English productions a. calendar as copy of one developed for us in the diocese of Winchester 8. creation a. binding incorporation of panels of ivory carved with scenes from the life of David b. for Melisende in scriptorium of Holy Sepulcher c. survival of ivory covers highly unusual d. manuscript mirrors hybrid cultural milieu of owner i. latin text preceded by 24 images of the life of Christ 1. common in western European style 2. images in Melisande's distinctly in eastern style a. reflective of the Byzantine Orthodox liturgical tradition ii. style employed to illustrate greek manuscripts e. illuminated by four artists i. westerners; strongly influenced by contemporary Byzantine work ii. author self claimed ‘Basilius’ 1. page a. harrowing of hell i. resurrected Jesus, risen from the dead after crucifixion ii. descends into hell and pulls out Adam and Eve while King David and OT figures watch 1. David and Solomon, dressed in imperial Byzantine garb, raise their hands in adoration or prayer 2. Christ, angels hold standards with the letters ‘SSS’ a. Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus (Holy, holy, holy…) b. gold background i. serves to emphasize the otherworldly visionary nature of image ii. same would be used for an icon c. in Greek: i. image known as the Anastasis 1. Greek word for resurrection, or to rise or stand again


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