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Week 6 - In-Class LAST 170 Notes

by: Stef Antonopoulos

Week 6 - In-Class LAST 170 Notes LAST 170

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About this Document

Week 6 notes include 2/22 and 2/24 on the case study CUBA
Introduction to Latin America
McKenna, E
Class Notes
Cuba, Case Study, study, notes, Latin America, Latin American, history, Hispanic, latino, Week 6, 6
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stef Antonopoulos on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LAST 170 at a university taught by McKenna, E in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.

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Date Created: 02/26/16
Case Study: Foreign Intervention in  Cuba  Announcements  ● Skidmore and Smith, Chapt. 9 “Cuba: Late Colony, First Socialist State”  ● Discussion Forum this week    Contemporary Issue: Reopening of US Embassy in  Havana  July, 20, 2015 Official reestablishment of diplomatic ties  Diplomatic relations severed on Jan. 3, 1961  Obama will be the first US President to visit cuba in 88 years    Who has tried to dominate cuba according to brenner?  Spain, USA, USSR    CUBA REVIEW  Pre­Columbian people: Taino, Arawak  Staging point for explorations  Strategic location in the New World    Independence  Napoleon’s Control of Europe in 1808        1 LAST 170 2/22 Exam 1  Cuba and Spain, 19th Century   ● One of Spain’s Last Colonies in Western Hemisphere  ● Sugar  ● 1846: 36% of population enslaved; 17% free blacks  ○ Afro­cuban→ fear of spanish crown  ● Fear of another Haiti  ● Elevation of agricultural class  ○ White elites on the island at the time were given more power and status   ● Direct trade to US  Haiti’s Revolution fueled the rise of big sugar in Cuba  ● Cuba Dependent on Sugar  ● 1780s: 10,000 tons (3.2% of Caribbean production)  ● 1894: 1,000,000 tons, world record at the time  Cuban Independence (1868­1898)  Cuban Wars of Independence  ● 10 Years War (1868­1878)  ● Little War (1879­1880)  ● War of Independence (1895­1898)    ● Spanish strategy: divide and conquer  ● Cuban strategy: racelessness  ○ Slaves who fought in 10 Years War got independence  ○ Slavery Ends 1880/1886  ● Mambi army: Cuban guerilla fighters  ○ shows different races fighting  Jose Marti (1853­1895)  ● Writer  ● Exile in Spain/US  ● Latin American Unity  ● Against Foreign control  ● Fought and died in War of Independence→ commitment of cause  2 LAST 170 2/22 Exam 1  ● “Once the US is in Cuba, who will get her out?”    Sinking of the USS Maine  ● Feb. 15, 1898  ● US Declared war on Spain, April 25, 1898  ● Spain surrendered to the US on August 12, 1898  ● US gained control of Cuba (and Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam)    Platt Amendment 1903­1934  ● US had right to intervene in Cuban affairs when interests were threatened  ● US Territory on Guantanamo Bay    US Economic Influence on Cuba  Controlled sugar industry in Cuba  Primary importer of Cuban sugar  Continued mono­crop dependence on sugar    Gerardo Machado (1871­1939)  ● President 1925­1933  ● a puppet of US  ● Populist  ● Strengthen Cuban National Identity  ● Increasingly authoritarian  ○ Controlling, not a lot of say to the people→ lost popularity  ● Deposed in 1933    Cuban­ness  ● Intellectual nationalist ideas mix with political agendas    3 LAST 170 2/22 Exam 1  Fernando Ortiz (1881­1969)  ● Cuban anthropologist and cultural nationalist  ● 1920s critical of US political­economic dominance  ● “Cubanidad”  ● Coined term: transculturation: “the different phases of the process of transition  from one culture to another”  Fulgencio Batista  ● 1933­1940 PUPPETS  ● 1940­1944 ELECTED  ● 1952­1959 DICTATOR  ● Close ties to the US  ● Power in years prior to revolution  Tourism in Pre­Revolutionary Cuba  ● Night clubs  ● Femininity  ○ Dancers, escorts  ● Luxurious accommodations  ○ Best of Cuba is for the tourists  ● Gambling/Casinos  Gambling Mobsters  ● Casinos  ● Corruption  Cuba on the eve of Revolution  ● Extreme disparity between rich and poor    Fidel Castro 19260 ­ Forever?  ● Son of a sugar farmer  4 LAST 170 2/22 Exam 1  ● Lawyer  ● Led movement to overthrow Batista    Attack on Moncada Barracks 1953*    Exile in Mexico, 1955  ● Fidel meets Che Guevara  ● Strategize for next round  Return to Cuba in Granma, 1956  ● Arrival in Sierra Maestra  ● Unsuccessful arrival  Rebel Movement 1956  ● Guerilla warfare  ● attracting peasant support  ● Victory at Santa Clara, Dec. 31, 1958  ○ Decisive victory  ● Batista flees, Jan. 1, 1959    The Triumph of the Revolution  January, 1 1959→ continue  5 LAST 170 2/22 Exam 1  CASE STUDY: CUBA’S STRUGGLES  FOR AUTONOMY, 1959­TODAY  OUTLINE  ● Warm­up  ● Cuban Revolution Reforms  ● Foreign Influence during the Revolution   ● Special Period  ● Contemporary Issues in Cuba    January , 1959  ● Poverty  ● Fidel Castro  ○ Tired of foreign control  ■ TIme of expectation  Revolutionary Reforms  **Castro Announced socialist character in 1961**  ● Nationalization  ○ Sugar Industry  ○ Banks  ○ Hotels  ● Land Reform  ○ Cap on acres owned  ○ Most became to the government  ● Urban Reform  ○ 2 pieces of property  ○ Lower rent→ no homelessness  ● Free Universal Health Care  ● Free Universal Education  ○ Through University Education free  ● Social Justice Program  ○ Literacy Campaign (1961)  ■ Addressed issue of illiteracy  ■ All University students and professors went out to teach people how to  read  ● Whole year off of school and teaching  ○ Make luxuries accessible  ○ Racial/Gender Equality  Revolutionary Reforms: Ice Cream For All  ● Started in 1966 (Copalia)  ○ Takes up whole city block  ■ Lines associated with different parlor  ● Make Ice cream available for all  ● Efficient System  ○ 2 people sit with other 2 people  ■ Orders at once→ urge in and out  ● 25 cents for a bowl  Gender Equality  ● Creation of the Federation of Cuban Women (FMC)  ● President of FMC: Vilma Espin (RAul Castro’s wife)    Early Contradictions in the Revolution  ● There was not a space for everyone within the Revolution.  ○ Reinaldo Arenas,Before Night Falls  ■ Homosexual man in Cuba and writer  ● Wrote about discrimination  ○ Homosexual in public→ jail  ■ Repression  ○ 1993 fil Fresa y Chocolate  ■ Befriend homosexual man  ● Discrepancies in Revolution  ■ Important Film because it shows how Cuban Revolution prevented even  films like this to emerge  ● Other visions  ● Violence  ○ Of those opposing  ● Censorship  ○ Intellectuals  ■ Could not speak out  ● Political Prisoners  ○ those who spoke out  ● Exodus of People  ○ Those discontent with revolution  ○ 250,000 people between 1959­62 that left the island  ■ Some waited it out because they had other expectations  ○ 700,000 by 1980  ■ More and more left because not meeting expectations  ● Soviet Union Collapsed ending Cuba’s dependency in 1991    The US and Cuba  Interview with Fidel Castro, Ed Sullivan Show, 1959  ● Ed Sullivan is saying that FC is admired because he’s like a George Washington  ● FC likes how people in the US that people are hard working  ○ Belongs everywhere in world because people from all countries live there  ● We like you and we want you to like us  ○ Suspicion that bad things might happen  ● Soon after revolution  USA Poses A Challenge For the Revolution:  ● Tensions due to nationalization of sugar refineries   ● 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion  ● Operation Mongoose  (small effort to bring down cuba)  ○ Terrorism  ■ Raids on factory equipment  ■ Burning Fields  ○ Political Isolation  ■ EX: Cuba suspended of organization of the US  ● Needed to change to be like the rest of the US  ○ Military Intimidation  ■ US conduct exercises by Caribbean  ○ Economic Strangulation  ■ Embargo and Travel Ban  ● Republicans more strict than Democrats  ● Key Dates:***  ○  1960­­First trade restrictions (Eisenhower)  ○ 1962­­Trade Embargo (Kennedy)  ○ 1963­­ OFAC Travel Ban (Kennedy)  ○ 1977­­Travel restrictions lifted (Carter)  ○ 1982­­Travel restrictions reimposed (Reagan)  ○ 1993­2000­Loosening and Tightening of travel restrictions  (Clinton)  ○ 2004­­Severe restrictions restored (Bush)   ○ 2009/2011­­Harsh restrictions lifted (Obama)   ○ 2014—Obama Reestablishes diplomatic relations, further  loosens travel ban and calls for an end to the embargo  USSR Cultivates Dependency During Revolution  The Special Period: 1991 Collapse of the Soviet  Union  ● Petroleum shortages  ● Food rationing/scarcity  ● Transportation  ● Tourism  Tourism In Cuba­Contemporary Contradiction  ● Foreigners­ 1st class; Cubans 2nd Class  ○ Best food for Tourists  ● Prostitution  ○ Escorts  ● Dual Economy (1 CUC = 25 Cuban Pesos)  ○ 2 currencies  ■ Convertible pesos = foreigners’  ● Prostitute you can make more with CUC  ● Tendency towards capitalist practices  ○ More competition  ■ Prostitution of selling yourself  ■ Souvenirs   ■ Your house with rooms to rent  ● Contradiction Revolutionary model  ● Resurgence of racism  ● Unequal restoration  ○ Certain areas more attention of where tourists go    Contemporary Cuba­Counter Narratives and Dissent  Generational Differences  ○ Youth question Revolution more  ■ Area not changing    Defecting  ○ athletes  ○ entertainers  ○ doctors  ■ Deciding to leave  Fighting from within  ○ Protesters, hunger strikes, Ladies in White  ○ Bloggers: Yoani Sanchez­ Generation Y  Raul’s Cuba: 2008­Present  ● Pushing cubans to have own businesses  ● Freedom to cell phones and internet  December 2014  ● Relations with US opened  Renewed Hope  ● Elections 2018  ● Changes on ownership  ● Elimination of dual economy  ● Restoration of diplomatic relations with US  ● Changes in trade regulations with US  ● Will the changes in US­Cuba relations allow Cuba to maintain its autonomy?   


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