BIOL 1030 2/21 week
BIOL 1030 2/21 week BIOL 1030
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 at Auburn University taught by Debbie Folkerts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
BIOL1030L ECTURE 2/23 AND 2/25 G YMNOSPERMS A. P. Coniferophyta a. World Records: i. Coastal Redwoods (381 ft height and 25 ft diameter) ii.Giant Sequoia (320 ft tall and 5 ft diameter) iii.Bristle-cone pine (4600 years old) iv. Pacific Yew Pinus brevifolia; drug against cancer B. P. Cycadophyta a. Named for the cycad inside the male cone that insects eat. b. Grow to look like shorter pine tree things or giant ferns with pine cones c. Cones: i. Megasporangiate strobilus: look like pine cones; (female) ii.Microsporangiate strobilus: look like corn cobs; (male) d. Dioeceous: two separate houses for the two sexes. e. Insect pollination evolved from herbivore insects being idiots: i. Beetles feed on pollen cones, get pollen all over them and fly to a female cone because they can’t tell the difference between a female and male cone. C. P. Ginkgophyta—Ginkgo bilboba a. Madenhair trees b. Monotypic (one type) c. The females produces seeds with fleshy coats that release an undesirable odor d. Under cultivation only; they were thought to be extinct until found in China; no one knows the native habitat. e. Leaf extract is used for supplements f. Dioecioius; dichotomous venation (2 way branching); deciduous(leaves fall off); dwarf branches( leaves grow only on the tiny little branches) D. P. Gnetophyta (silent G) a. Ephedra is used to make Sudafed b. Adapted to dry conditions; has no leaves and photo stem c. Gnetum d. Welwitschia—Namib Desert, the driest place on earth. i. Woody cone anchors it in the sand ii.No root and thus no water iii.Two leaves that last forever and continue to grow from the meristems iv. Absorb water(fog) through leaves and pushed towards the stem (Backwards from most plants) A NGIOSPERMS —“ CONTAINED SEEDS ” OR FRUIT 1 PHYLUM = A NTHOPHYTA (A NTHO MEANS FLOWER ) A. The point of fruit is to disperse seeds; the point of flowers is pollination B. Anthophyta is also called magnoliaphyta a. Very diverse and largest phylum we’ve studied so far. b. Smaller gametophyte generation c. Double fertilization C. What is a flower? A determinate sporophyll-bearing shoot a. Determinate: precise amount of growth and number of whorls b. Sproophyll: modified leaves producing spores c. Shoot: the part above ground D. Four Whorls a. 2 Sterile: have a function other than spore production; like attracting insects i. Petals (corolla) ii. Sepals (calyx) iii. Perianth is the two together b. 2 Fertile: produce spores i. Microsporangiate (male) 1. Androecium: male house ii. Megasporangiate (female) 1. Gynecium: female house c. Diagram: Female part: Carpel. If two or more carpels are fused together, they are called a pistil. They are generally fused. -Stigma: top where the pollen sticks -style: long tube -Ovary: where the egg resides Male Part: Stamen -Anther: where spore production occurs -Filament: The long stem Nonsexual parts: -Petal (corolla) -Sepal (calyx) -(tepals: petals and sepals that look alike) -Receptacle -Peduncle: the stem under the flower. H OW F LOWERS V ARY 1) Ovary position: a. Hypogynous: “superior ovary”—the ovary sits above everything else. b. Epigynous: “inferior ovary”—everything else is above the ovary. c. Perigynous: ovary with a hypanthium (little cup for it to sit in) 2) Fusion of flower parts: a. Connation: fusion of like parts i. Most common: carpels fuse into a pistil; petals fuse b. Adnation: fusion of unlike parts 3) Presence/Absence of parts: a. Complete: all whorls are present b. Incomplete: one or more whorls are missing. c. Perfect: having both fertile whorls d. Imperfect: missing one or both of the fertile whorls i. Carpellate: only carpels ii. Staminate: only stamins 4) Symmetry: a. Actinomorphic (Radial)—Can be cut anywhere and as many time and still have symmetry. i. b. Zygomorphic (bilateral)—only one plane of symmetry. i. 5) Infloresence type: a. How a single branch may bear flowers Solitary: 1 Spike: flowers Raceme: flower at directly Has branches one end attached at points along the stem. Panicle: Corymb: Umbel: has bouquet; multiple branches Flowers all line branches from off up. one node. branches Compound Composite Umbel: an Head: multiple umbel of flowers at the umbels. same spot. Ex: Sunflowers 6) Pollination syndromes: a. Anemophily: just wind b. Zoophily: pollinated by animals i. Bee, moth, butterflies, carrion flies (attracted to dead animals), bat.
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