Chapter 5 Notes
Chapter 5 Notes ASTR-1010-01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR-1010-01 at Clayton State University taught by Bram Boroson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Solar System Astronomy in Art at Clayton State University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Chapter 5- Light and Matter • Studying light reveals properties about what the stars are made of. • Newton discovered that white light is a mixture of all colors in the rainbow. • Separating colors is called a spectrum and can be done with diffraction grading. • Light is a wave of electromagnetic energy; sound is also a wave, higher sounds have a shorter wavelength and lower sounds have a longer wavelength. • Wavelength is the distance between waves or the space between repeating waves. • Sound is a wave of air. • Atoms are the building blocks of matter; corresponding to this concept, light has particles called photons. • Blue light carries more energy than red light. Wavelengths of blue color are short and those of red are longer. • Spectra types- thermal (continuous), emission, and absorption • Colors that we can see are only a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum • The wavelength of visible light is very small. • Microwaves have a longer wavelength than the colors we see in visible light. • Radio waves travel at the same speed as light and are carried by photons. • Gamma ray photons carry some much energy that they can alter your DNA. • The Sun’s corona gives off x-rays. • The simplest of all atoms is Hydrogen which has just one proton • Atoms have certain energy levels and no levels in between, like the rungs of a ladder. • Lowest level of energy in an atom is referred to as “ground state”. The level is defined by 0 eV (electron volts). • For an electron to go from a higher level to a lower level it releases a photon equal to its own energy drop. • From level 3 to level to is a wavelength of 656 nanometers (nm). Level 2 to level 1 is a wavelength of 121 nm. • Spectrums can be examined through graphs. Peaks in the graph are increases in emission and dips are decreases in absorption. • Studying the emission and absorption spectrums will help you discover what things are made of (atoms, ions, and molecules), and how things move (rotation). • Studying continuous spectrums will reveal temperatures of objects in space. • Because of the way atoms are built, with electrons that move between different levels of energy, the loss or gain of an electron will come out as a photon. This is what causes the addition of certain colors in an emission line spectrum and the removal of certain colors in the absorption line spectrum. • The Doppler Effect works with any kind of wave, sound and light included. • In the Doppler Effect, the closer you get to the source of the waves the shorter the wavelength gets. This is referred to as a blue shift. Getting farther away lengthens the waves and is referred to as a red shift. • Motion from side to side will not be detected by the Doppler Effect. The Doppler Effect can only reveal how far away or nearby the source of the waves is. • The Doppler Effect is generally measured in the wavelengths of spectral lines. This means that by comparing spectral graphs of the source to its stationary spectral graph, you will be able to tell whether the source is blue shifted or red shifted (closer or farther away) For example, and object that is moving away would have a spectral graph that shifts the colors toward red. In other words, if a line on the graph is green when the source is stationary, it will move toward yellow as the source moves away. • Kelvin is a temperature measurement. One unit in Kelvin is the same as one degree, but the lowest temperature on the Kelvth scale is absolute zero. 0K= -275 C • Wien’s law- T= 2.9 x 10 to the 6 power/ lambda max. This is how you measure the temperature of something that has a thermal spectrum.
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