Week Eight Notes
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
Reviews for Week Eight Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/26/16
Ø False memories can be induced by: suggestion: o loftus had older siblings tell their little siblings that something had happened to them as a kid o Older brother of Chris (14 yo) tells him he was lost in the mall (which never actually happened) o Chris originally gives vague memories like he remembers seeing the stores o and then after a few weeks (they ask him a couple times a week what he remembers) and he remembers all kinds of details and stuff o this suggestion usually comes through an authority figure o in one study, participants were shown a fake photo of them in a hot air balloon made from a real photo of them and it leads to a vivid recollection of that experience even though they’ve never been in a hot air balloon beliefs about one’s past are readily influenced by clinicians’ dream interpretation o dreams may be the “royal road to memory manipulation” o studies have found that if you tell someone a dream indicates that this particular thing happened to them, they are very confident that it actually happened to them o dreams can often later be mistaken for actual events o Imagination Inflation: imagining events increases the likelihood of believing it happened people can develop both a belief in, and ‘memory’ of, an event that never actually happened to them simply by imagining that it occurred false memories can be induced by suggestive therapists who may use hypnosis, sodium amytal, dream interpretation, and/or guided imagery recovered memories of childhood abuse are more likely to be valid if they occur outside any form of therapy and are a surprise to the victim 1. suggestion (Loftus) from an authority figure 2. Beliefs about one’s own past are readily influenced by clinicians’ dream interpretation (Mazzoni & Loftus, 1998à dreams may be the “royal road to memory manipulation”. 3. merely imagining events: Imagination-inflation (Loftus; Mazzoni) – people can develop both a belief in, & a memory of, an event that never happened to them by __________________________________. V. Memory shifts due to knowledge (e.g., of environmental invariants like momentum or gravity) or inference we can have shifts in memory just due to stuff we know we know that if you let go of a cup it will fall to the ground if you drop a cup and the lights go out while it’s falling, we will remember that the location in the air when the lights went off is slightly lower than it was when the lights actually went off This is representational momentum: memories tend to be distorted in the direction of a perceived or implied motion o e.g. if we just glance at a bus, we’ll probably remember that it was further down the road than it was o these changes in memory match the changes in events (e.g. if the event is faster, the change may be a little more) boundary extension: tendency to remember more of a scene than was actually seen o pictures drawn from memory may include elements that would logically fall just outside the boundaries of the original o e.g. students saw a picture of a fork and were then asked to recreate it and they drew much more of the fork than was in the picture because they have extensive knowledge of forks A. Representational Displacement: observers tend to remember an event as extending past its actual ending point. e.g., Representational Momentum (RM) - memories tend to be distorted in the directional of a perceived or implied motion with higher perceived velocity à more displacement. B. Boundary Extension - a tendency to ‘remember’ more of a scene than was actually seen, as when ‘remembering’ parts of a static scene that were actually _____________________________ of t4he view. à pictures drawn from memory may include elements that would logically fall just outside the boundaries of the origin.l (Intraub) Reconstructive memory: some main points memories are rarely exact reproductions of what was experienced; we typically reconstruct memories using inference, beliefs, pre- existing knowledge, and post-event information our memories can have distortions and additions as well as errors of omission other people may intentionally or unintentionally distort our memories or even implant false memories people can have false memories in a variety of situations we can have problems correctly identifying the source of information in memory (source monitoring problem) confidence is not a good indicator of accuracy Improving Memory Methods of Improving Encoding and Consolidation consolidation: converting STM to LTM Mnemonics (memory tricks) o Method of Loci (methods of locations): requires three steps traceable to ancient Greece at a banquet where a roof fell in (so heavy stones) one lucky guy at the banquet had stepped out and he was able to name everybody at this big banquet table by this method if you’ve got a set of locations in mind, you can remember things in those locations and mentally revisit these things and remember things identify a sequence of familiar places creates images of to-be-recalled items associated with places recall by “revisiting” the places o Peg word system: pairs of rhyming words form “pegs” for to be remembered items e.g. #4 is door, #3 is tree, #2 is shoe, etc… o First Letter Technique (acrostics) HOMES ROY G BIV o Chunking: reduce the amount you need to remember by putting them in chunks o Rhyming/Keyword: e.g. picturing a polka dotted lever to remember Polk was the eleventh president o mnemonics can be used in acquiring foreign language vocabulary verbal rehearsal (maintenance) doesn’t work nearly as well as mnemonics Dual (multiple) encoding: encode things in more than one way and you’ll remember it better o Enactment effect: performing actions produces better recall than only learning action phrases e.g. tear the paper combines visual and motor memory o combine visual and verbal o use varying study environments: college students who studied a list of 40 vocabulary items in two different rooms did far better on the test than students who only studied the list in one room Comprehension: try to do whatever it takes to understand the material because you’ll remember it better if you comprehend it Minimize interference: e.g. study before going to sleep Use distributed vs. massed practice: memory is better when the learning is spread out (spacing effect) Use deep processing: e.g. elaborative rehearsal Self-Test (testing effect): test yourself on the material before the actual exam o testing effect: people who are tested on information and then review how they did and why they missed things, will know the information much better
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'