Introduction to Human Biology: A Breath of Fresh Air- All About the Respiratory System!
Introduction to Human Biology: A Breath of Fresh Air- All About the Respiratory System! 2862
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Riley Notetaker on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2862 at University of Wisconsin Green Bay taught by Dr. Marker in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin Green Bay.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
IntroductiontoHumanBiology SpringSEMESTER2016 INSTRUCTOR:Dr.Marker MarkerJ@UWGB.Edu Myemailriley.email@example.com Note:I’ve decided to start going by body system rather than by week. It makes notes clearer and more organized. Expect the Circulatory and Nervous System within the next few days. Expect the skeletal system within the next week or so. As always, email me with any comments or questions! -Riley _____________________________________________________________ Miscellaneous Notes: -Because we have alveoli, our lungs have a tremendous amount of surface area. -Surface area is a big deal in many different body systems. We have around 70-80 square meters of alveoli in our lungs. -Respiratory illnesses like pneumonia affect the alveoli. A Breath of Fresh Air: All About The Respiratory System Like many of our body’s systems, the Respiratory System is vital for keeping us alive and moving. I.What are the functions of the Respiratory System? 1 A. The respiratory system’s primaryfunction is providing the exchange of Oxygen (O2 and Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 between a living body (its tissues in particular), and it’s surrounding environment. We need Oxygen to breathe. **Trivia: Normal air is not just Oxygen. Air is a mixture of elements, including Nitrogen, Oxygen, Iron, and more! Pure Oxygen by itself is breathable, but not for extended periods of time.** B. Another important function of the respiratory system is that it lets us communicate in may ways. Talking, singing, and laughing, are all ways we communicate with other people and our environments. C. The respiratory system also enhances our senses of smell and taste. Just think about how much better food is when it smells good! D. Finally, the other main role of the Respiratory system is that it helps control our body’s natural pH level. (around 7.4) II. How is the Respiratory System organized, and what’s its anatomy like? Quick Diagram of the Respiratory System*: 2 *I’ve never actually used pictures like this before. If you can’t read something or it’s hard to make out, please let me know. I want these notes to be as clear as possible! -Riley A. The Respiratory System is like a tree, containing many different structures that work together to form one full object or “plant”. Structures include: 1. Our nose and mouth. These are very important for conditioning or adapting the air we breathe in. 3 a. Several structures are designed just for the adaptation process. Example structures include hair and goblet cells. 2. The Pharynx 3. The Larynx. opens and closes. 4. Tracheas a. These are made up of several layers of cells. b. “C-rings” cartilage 5. Bronchus (there’s 2) 6.Bronchioles one degrees, two degrees, three degrees, etc.) 7.Alveoli (they’re bubble shaped sacs) C. What’s the Significance, or function, of these passageways in the Respiratory System? 1. They transport air between lungs and the nearby environment 2. These passageways condition the air that flows into them. D. Alveoli- what are they good for? 1. The Alveoli provide a very thin membrane for gas transport. 2.Importantl, they provide the exchange between air and CO2. 3. There’s about 700 million alveoli in a typical body! That adds up to around 70 square meters of surface area. 4 Reminder: Gases only function or defuse based on their own partial pressure. Total pressure doesn’t matter. All changes in our breathing are designed to keep the values of the pressures in our Alveoli constant. (another example of homeostasis) E. There’s a “path” of Oxygen to the red blood cells. **FYI** ● The respiratory membrane includes ○ the alveolar cells ○ the epithelial basement membrane ○ capillary basement membrane ○ endothelial cells of capillaries ● PLUS: distance to and through the RBC (red blood cells) to the hemoglobin Inside the RBC III. Components of Respiration A. There’s ventilation, or the movement of air (breathing) 1. Mechanics of Ventilation (the physical actions: a. some basic gas laws: i. pressure is a function of the number of gas particles/volume, so if a number of molecules stays constant, but volume increases,the pressure goes down and vice versa. ii. the space in the lungs is acted on by two pressures: 5 (a) pressure from the “outside”, i.e. ambient air (via the nose/mouth) (b) Intraplueral (it’s pressure in a specific part of the body - the pleural cavity) pressure iii. air moves in the direction of the least pressure, i.e., if ambient pressure is greater than intrathoracic pressure, air moves into the lungs (inspiration occurs) and vice-versa b. Inspiration is actually an active process. reminder: pressure is related to the number of molecules in a given space. Think of pounds per square inch or something similar. As one breathes in and out, the pressure in the room doesn’t change, but the pressure inside the lungs does! i.expansion of the thoracic cavity. This is accomplished via the diaphragm and other muscles like the intercostals, expanding the size of the “rib cage” ii. Results in a reduced pressure in the area. This is because the intrapleural “space” is increased, but the number of gas molecules (in that space) stays the same! iii. Air enters the lungs because the ambient (outside) pressure is now greater than the intrapleural pressure. 2. What about lung “Capacity”? a. Well, it depends on “ventilatory volumes” i. For example, total lung capacity is 4 Liters in adults. 6 ii. There’s actually very little implication for health or fitness status. (lung volume and function barely changes as a result of exercise compared to bone and muscle. This is because our lungs are incredibly overbuilt.) b. ventilatory function i. ventilation rate = 10L/min at rest to over 100+L/min during exercise ii. others, e.g., Forces Expired Volume in 1 second -normally 90% 3. Regulation of ventilation a. The brain provides input for smooth and rhythmic breathing, i.e., sustained (vs jerky) breathing at a regular pace. b. Special receptors that are sensitive to H+, CO2, and O2 influence breathing. c. Breathing is regulated primarily in response to CO2 coming up (out), and O2 coming in. d. This makes sense when one considers that during heavy exertion, the following reaction takes place: CO2 + H2O -> HCO3- + H+ B. Diffusion (movement [of a gas] from an area of high to low across membranes 7 C. Transport and Diffusion to tissues IV. Respiratory Ailments - caused by viruses, bacteria, and/or “irritants” Common examples: ● cold -> virus ● flu -> virus ● pneumonia - fluid in alveoli -> virus/bacteria ● emphysema - alveoli become distended and inelastic ● Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - (COPD) cased by a variety of conditions that reduce ventilatory capacity ● Lung Cancer ● Asthma - construction of airways (bronchioles) in the lungs ● Pulmonary Fibrosis - e.g., asbestos, etc. that infiltrate the lung and are “walled off” with fibers V. There are several medical specialists that relate to the respiratory system: 1)Pulmonologist 2)Respiratory Therapists 8
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