Note for BIOL 109 at IPFW
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CSCI A110: Intro to Computers and Computing
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Study Guide for Exam 3 Circulation 1 o Digestive System nutrients water salts elimination of food residues 0 Respiratory System 02 intake elimination of C02 0 Circulatory System transports to and from cells sends water solutes to urinary system 0 Urinary System elimination of excess water salts wastes 0 Huge variety of cells 0 Found within hemolymph o Actively engage in phagocytosis as a defense against pathogens 0 Also bivalve nutrition and wasteproduct excretion 0 Active participants in maintaining homeostasis o m white blood cells Eosinophil Neutrophil Monocyte Basophil Lymphocyte form part of the immune system rid body of foreign bodies and bacteria serve as scavengers and defensive cells life span of 7 hours immune defenses unknown lifespan defense against parasites marrow nucleus lost by exocytosis 02 attaches to hemoglobin transport of 02 and C02 0 Life span in blood 120 days 02 and C02 transport 0 Red blood cells mesh with fibrins the mass prevents blood from leaving the vessel m Platelets collect at wound site Platelet factors with Ca and clotting factors form Platelet Thromboplastin Tissue factors with Ca and clotting factors form Tissue Thromboplastin Prothrombin activator creates Thrombin Fibrinogen 9 Fibrin 0 Why are so many steps involved in the clotting process 0 Each step provides major amplification provides a faster and full response OOOOO i r 39 arthropods insects o no small blood vessels or capillaries interfacing with cells or connecting arteries with veins 0 blood sinuses called m replace capillary beds 0 blood am 39im freely circulates bathing the tissues 0 mix of blood ith extracellular fluid so blood volume is large and may constitute 2040 of body volume 0 Blood enters heart through valved openings E 0 Very low blood pressure has auxiliary quotheartsquot to boost blood flow Annelids earthworms cephalopods vertebrates w lm w increases in size during embryonic development to obliterate the blastocoel and forms a secondary body cavity 0 Continuously connected blood vessels develop within the mesoderm o A heart pumps blood into arteries that brand and narrow into arterioles then into a vast system of capillaries that interfaces with cells and body tissues 0 Blood leaving capillaries flows into venules and then veins that return blood to heart 0 More suitable for large and active animals because blood moves rapidly to the most active tissues 0 Much higher blood pressure fluid is constantly moving through capillary walls into surrounding tissue spaces fluid drawn back in through osmosis remainder is recovered by lymphatic system 739 39 carries blood anteriorly carries blood posteriorly o 5 aortIc arches function as accessory hearts o 2chambered heart atrium and ventricle atrium in front of ventricle o Sinus venous collects blood from the venous system 9 atrium 9 ventricle 9Conusarteriosus which dampens blood pressure oscillations before blood flows into delicate blood capillaries o 3 Hi i u tuglemwi pumped from the heart to the gills where it is oxygenated then flows into the dorsal aorta to be distributed to body organs and finally returns by veins to the heart 0 quot v gill capillaries offer so much resistance to blood flow that blood pressures to body tissues are greatly reduced o 3chambered heart 2 atria and 1 undivided ventricle I Right atrium receives venous blood from the body deoxygenated I Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and skin I Ventricle undivided but venous and arterial blood remain mostly separate due to the spiral fold of the conusarteriosus the arrangement of septa or folds in vessels leaving the heart and the differential blood pressures in the existing vessels 39i quotlu Mgl ii n des oxygenated blood to the capillary beds of the body o I 3111 36 V I Systemic circuit provi organs I Pulmonary circuit serves the lungs Iii in milfrm 7 4chambered heart 2 atria 2ventricles Arteries away from heart Veins to heart 6M it i m i H twice through the heart No mixing of blood in ventricles 4 heart valves prevent backflow I Large valves with tendons anchors O O O O O o Tricuspid Right Atrioventricular Valve 0 Bicupsid Left Atrioventricular Valve I Small valves with quotcuspsquot exit ventricles 0 Pulmonary semilunar valve 0 Aortic semilunar valve Oxygenated blood from lungs enters left atrium through pulmonary veins pumped through left ventricle into aorta and throughout body DeOxygenated blood returns to heart via inferior and superior vena cava through right atrium to right ventricle through pulmonary arteries and to lungs m contraction o Atria contract while ventricles relax and fill with blood semilunar valves close 0 When atria are in systole ventricles are in diastole relaxation o Ventricles are contracting while atria are relaxing and filling with blood atrioventricular valves are closed 0 Ventricles in systole atria in diastole beats per minute Average heart rate at rest 60100bpm Strongly correlated with size of animal Heart rate increases with small body size because of higher metabolic rates Largest animals have lowest heart rate Can be affected by conditioning with exercise Athletes have a much lower resting heart rate down in the 20s bpm works with heart rate to determine volume of blood pumped from 1 ventricle each beat Volume pumped out is generally equal in both ventricles 39 heart rate x stroke volume 5 liters per minute in average resting adult Volume of blood pumped from 1 ventricle each minute Measure of how heart is performing Determined by amount of blood being returned to heart Reflects metabolic activity of organs Contraction 0 Unlike skeletal muscle tissues neuron stimulation is not needed for contraction of heart specialized pacemaker cells 0 Myogenic will contract spontaneously hearts can be removed and still function 0 Electrical activity initiated in the pacemaker SA node spreads over the muscle of the two atria and then to the secondary pacemaker AV node at the top of the ventricles 0 electrical activity is conducted rapidly through the bundle of His and left and right branching bundles in the apex of the ventricle 0 then continues through specialized fibers Purkinje fibers to the apex of the ventricles 0 allows contraction to begin within cardiac cells in apex of ventricles and spread upward to propel blood also ensures both ventricles contract simultaneously Arteries 0 takes blood out of heart 0 much thicker layer of circular smooth muscle and elastic fibers 0 elasticity functions to withstand the pressure of the blood 0 maintains the high blood pressure without rupturing 0 bring blood to heart 0 thinner layer of smooth muscle and much less elastic 0 deal with much lower blood pressures than arteries Capillaries o Smallest vessels in the body so small because diffusion is primary function and increases surface area serve to communicate between arteries and veins arterioles and venules thin about 1 cell in thickness have a very small diameter less than 10 microns red blood cells barely fit through very extensive network of capillaries in the tissues 2000 capillaries per square mm in muscles total length of capillaries in human body would extend to 50000 miles long 0 primary function is to exchange materials gases and nutrients from blood and tissues recycled waste products diffuse back into capillaries and brought to veins Movement of fluid in capillaries o Arterial end higher hydrostatic pressure lower osmotic pressure net movement out of capillary o Venous end lower hydrostatic pressure higher osmotic pressure movement back into capillary 0 Some fluid remains in interstitial space because outflow exceeds inflow and is collected and removed by lymphatic system fluid called lymph 0 Plasma nutrients are carried into the interstitial space where they can enter cells and metabolic wastes from the cells are drawn into the plasma and carried away 0000 Blood Vessels Artery 9 Arterioles 9 Capillaries 9Venules9 Vein Pressure highest in arteries and arterioles and minimizes in capillaries venules and veins Velocity is highest in arteries and arterioles then minimizes in capillaries and starts to increase in venules and veins Total area is only increased in capillaries More resistance in smaller vessels How blood moves back to the heart in veins Blood pressure is a lot lower in veins Primary way in which blood is moved back to heart is the contraction ofsurrounding skeletal muscles when contract squeeze vessel which pushes blood back to heart when muscles are relaxed the valves remain closed so the blood doesn t fall back to gravity musculature in legs helps circulation back to heart Problems Arteriosclerosis buildup of plaque in vessels inhibits blood flow to organs major factor in heart attack Myocardial infarction quotheart attack blockage of blood flow to heart cells die high cholesterol nicotine high blood pressure obesity hereditary Blue Baby syndrome deoxygenated blood heart defect light refraction tends to make it appear blueish Gas Exchange Air is a physical mixture 0 Each gas generates a partial pressure of the total pressure of the balloon o 02 21 0 N2 78 0 C02 03 0 Air exerts a pressure each gas contributes to pressure 0 Atmospheric pressure 1atm 760 mm Hg 0 p0221x760159mHg o pN2 78x760593 mm Hg 0 pC02 0003 x 760 23 mm Hg 0 under water the pressure increases with greater depth every 10 meters is an increase of 1 atm o as external pressure increases it compresses and volume decreases gases are very compressible molecules get closer together 0 Boyles Law volume of the gas is inversely proportional to the pressure 0 partial pressure is the same volume is changing total pressure changes 0 Relationship of P02 in atmosphere to atmospheric pressure 0 Air pressure decreases as you increase in atmosphere 0 Sea level air pressure 760 mm Hg P02 160 mm Hg 0 10000 ft air pressure 523 mm Hg P02 110 mm Hg 0 20000 ft air pressure 349 mm Hg P02 73 mm Hg 0 Relative partial pressures o 02 Atm Air 159 9 Alveolar Air 100 9 Pulmonary Vein to heart 100 9 Pulmonary Artery from heart 40 0 C02 Atm Air 015 9 Alveolar Air 40 9 Pulmonary vein 40 9 Pulmonary Artery 46 N2 Atm Air 597 9 Alveolar Air 573 9 Pulmonary Vein 573 9 Pulmonary Artery 573 o Alveoli exchange with capillaries diffusion of 02 into blood diffusion from capillaries into alveoli of C02 nitrogen remains fairly constant 0 Pulmonary vein oxygenated Pulmonary artery deoxygenated o Bronchi 9 bronchioles 9 alveoli closely associated with capillary network 0 02 diffuses out of blood into tissues C02 diffuses out of tissues into blood 0 0 Pressure difference on each side of the membrane 0 Relative partial pressures across the membrane high rate of diffusion across membrane from high pressure to low pressure with large difference between pressures low rate with small difference between pressures 0 Area of the pulmonary membrane alveoli I Normal alveoli thick healthy walls I Emphysema thin and fragile membrane eventually creating permanent holes in the membrane walls inbetween alveoli sacs disappear reduced surface area for gas exchange I Pneumonia fluid filled alveoli or air sacs blocks exchange across the membrane increasing the thickness of the membrane with layer of fluid 0 Diffusion coef cient of a gas I Ability of a gas to diffuse through a membrane is inversely proportional to the molecular weight 0 Through the body surface 0 Invertebrates thin integument diffusion across body surface area relative to their volumes I Protists sea anemones planarians o Spiracles and Trachea oxygen delivery system is independent from the blood no hemoglobin openings in the cuticle throughout the exoskeleton spiracles lead to a system of trachea that branch into tracheloes just for insects 0 Fish ventilation respiratory exchange occurs through gills gills enclosed within moveable operculum when mouth is open water flows in towards gills water moves past gills as mouth closes and compresses mouth cavity to push water out through gills I Countercurrent principle blood and water are flowing in opposite directions across the gills blood vessels in gill filaments o Greatly facilitates diffusion of gasses between water and blood 0 Amphibian lung and breathing I Considered positive pressure breathers air taken in through external nares nostrils expansion of buccal cavity close external nares and compress cavity and push air back into lungs o Vertebrate lungs simple in amphibians more complex in birds and mammals changes increase the surface area available for gas exchange I Mammalian lung nostril 9 pharynx 9 glottis 9 larynx 9 trachea 9 bronchus 9 bronchiole9 alveoli greatly increases surface area 0 Negative pressure breathers before inhalation air pressure equals atmospheric pressure during inhalation diaphragm contracts and expands chest cavity and increases volume and reduces air pressure air from outside is drawn in from higher pressure to lower pressure during exhalation diaphragm relaxes decreasing the volume of the chest cavity pressure increases in the lungs forcing air out of the lungs pulling air as opposed to pushing 0 Smoking and Lung Disease 0 Lung cancer is responsible for the most cancer deaths lack of alveoli keeps toxins in 0 Cancer in the US highest where chemical manufacturing is common 0 Incidence of lung cancer in men and women inc rate among both mmune System 3 Layers of Defense 0 1 physical barriers skin integument mucous membranes all organisms have this 0 Vertebrates skin exoskeleton mucous and waxy coating I Mucous membranes 0 Urinary reproductive digestive tract eyes 0 Tears and sweat contain antibacterial agents ysozymes 0 Oil glands produce protective film I Flora 0 Skin eye reproductive respiratory and digestive systems I Digestive Tract 0 Many microbes are killed by saliva the acidic environment of the stomach and by digestive enzymes in the intestine I Respiratory Tract 0 Cells lining the bronchi and bronchioles secrete a layer of sticky mucus that traps most microorganisms before reaching the lungs o Other passages are lined with cilia that continually sweep the mucus toward the glottis to remove microorganisms 0 Provides a nearly impermeable barrier o epidermis stratified squamous epithelium cornified layer prevents entry 0 Antibacterial defense cells are sloughed off and continuously recycled if any pathogens are in the cells 0 2quotdnonspeci c internal defenses phagocytosis consume particles inflammation natural killer cells program cell death in cells fever Innate immunity pathogens your body has not been exposed to before responses are immediate but nonspecific most organisms have some form of this 0 In ammation Generalized nonspecific response to infection that acts to clear an infected area of infecting microbes and dead tissue cells so that tissue repair can begin response in days I Bacteria attract macrophages with chemical alarm signals macrophages release signal chemicals that attract more phagocytes and all concentrate at infected area to phagocytize the bacteria puss is accumulation of dead and live phagocytes and some fluid I Heat redness increased blood flow I Pain release of bradykinins proteins that activate pain receptors I Process recruitment of leukocytes white blood cells secretion of chemical signals histamine cytokines leukotrienes prostaglandins serve to dilate the blood vessels to increase blood flow to specific area increase the permeability of the capillary walls to leukocytes to pass through phagocytosis by macrophage cells 0 Natural Killer Cells response in hours large granular lymphocyte I Targets viruses and tumors I Respond to cytokines chemical signals I Rapid response hours I Induce apoptosis suicideprogrammed cell death before virus replicates I Do not phagocytize upper cell is natural killer cell will find and get close to targetinfected cell inside natural killer cell are a series of molecules called perforin and granzymes when close to a target cell releases perforin through exocytosis and they migrate to target cell and cause pores to form proteases flow into cell through newly created channel pores and initiate the program cell death cell will shrink in size and DNA breaks down cell falls apart then phagocytized by macrophages 0 3 specific immune response 0 cellmediated immunity Contactdependent immune cell receptor binds to receptor of target cell T lymphocytes attack and destroy infected cells Carried out by T cells which mount an immediate attack on infected cells that display a foreign antigen on the major histocompatibility complex MHC o MHC series of proteins that identify a cell every nucleated cell has at least 1 MHC Tcells develop from bone marrow but mature in the thymus gland 4 Principle TceIIs o Inducer T cells 0 Not involved in the immediate response to infection 0 Mediates the maturation of other T cells in the thymus o Helper T cells 0 Initiates response through secretion of cytokines important in the ultimate function of B cells 0 Commander of the immune response 0 Detects infection and sounds the alarm o Initiating both T cell and B cell responses 0 Cytotoxic T cells 0 Detects and kills infected body cells 0 Recruited by helperT cells 0 Suppressor T cells 0 Dampens the activity ofT and B cells 0 Scaling back the defense after the infection has been checked Steps in cellmediated immune response 0 Phagocytizes crosses it in cell and binds it to MHC secretes cytokine Interleukin1 o Interleukin 1 stimulates cell division and proliferation of Tcells o Helper T cells then secrete Interleukin2 which stimulates the proliferation of cytotoxic T cells 0 Cytotoxic T cells recognize and destroy body cells infected with the virus 0 They can only destroy infected cells that display the foreign antigen together with their MHC proteins 0 humoral immunity blood antibodies Use of antibodies secreted proteins B lymphocytes secrete antibodies Antibodies Yshaped proteins on surface of Bcells 0 Structure 2 heavy chains 2 light chains either end has an antigenic binding site can be very specific for a particular antigen Antigens foreign particles that bind to antibodies e acqulred or adaptive immunity lulluwlng subsequemexpusurem a palhugen lmmune system can be mudllled st llrespundslu the palhugen qulckerwllh mare mrensrty lucus an a pamcularpamgem lakesllmelu devele smce ll happenslulluwlng an lnlllal Expusure39 lmpmlEd resprmse gels relalned m memury cells immunological memory baslslurvacclnalluns only m vertebrates sMacmphagecells Type alwmre bland cell The budy39smsrcellular lme uldelense Alsu serves as anugempresemmgcell m a andT cells EngullsanllbudyscmEredcells e HelperTrcells Cummandersulthelmmunerespunse nerenlnlemrmandsuundsmealarm lmuare bulhT cell and a cell resprmse Precursmulplasmacell Speclahzedlurecugnlzespecl clurelgnanllgens e PlasmaCel Eluchemlcallanury devuledlulhe pruducllun ulanllbudles dlrecled agalnsl speclll lurergn anugens e MemoryCells Cunllnueslu palrulyuurbudy sllssueslrculallng lhruughyuurbluudand lympmmalrmgrlme lnlerleuklnl Irwzdlng HelperT cell Memory cell receplor MHC proleln Processed am en Macrophage Helper T cell Plasma cell Processed anllgen a cell recepler anllbouy Self vs NonSelf o Tcells are important in the recognition of cells that are quotselfquot vs quotnonselfquot 0 they recognize antigens on the surfaces of the cells infected with a virus and attack the cell containing it o MHC protein helps attract the HelperT Cell 0 Cytotoxic Tcells recognize the viral antigen and initiate the programmed cell death 0 Every cell will have cell antigens 0 Problems 0 tissue graphs or organ transplants recognized as foreign objects results in immediate failure or rejection immunosuppressant drugs used for body to accept organ TCells I best results when using your own skin or an identical twin I with a stranger the chances of finding the same antigens is greatly reduced quottissuetypingquot used for donor and recipient I bone marrow and blood vessels can also be transplanted o Autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis lymphocytes will attack the body s own cells within the synovial fluids causes inflammation and painful joints TCells I lnflamed body cells in the joints being recognized by T cells as quotnonselfquot I Result is an immune response that causes injury to the body s cells 0 Primary Immune Response 0 first exposure to the disease and recovery from it 0 given a vaccination to protect you against it 0 Secondary Immune Response 0 Second exposure to the same disease 0 your body will react swiftly and decisively with a multitude of antibodies 0 Antibody production is much greater for the secondary response 0 Antibodies are produced immediately in great numbers 0 Cowpox used to make vaccine for smallpox smallpox is much more deadly 0 Active Immunity injection ofantigen B Cells 0 when body is exposed to pathogen it produces its own antibodies 0 Naturally when pathogen invades body 0 Artificially vaccination of dead or disable pathogen cholera measles mumps small pox polio o Immune response may be boosted with a quotbooster shotquot helps increase antibodies over some time 0 Passive Immunity passage of antibodies B Cells 0 injection of antibodies 0 the antibodies called antiserum come from another person or animal who has the antibodies 0 acts quickly but for a short period of time as antibodies are broken down 0 Ex infections hepatitis bee and snake antivenom o Allergies o Exaggerated response to harmless substances grass pollen dust etc o asthma is severe form of an allergy that restricts air passages house dust mite feces contains a protein that causes an allergic response in some people 0 AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 0 caused by HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus transmitted sexually and through blood transfusions breast milk 0 This virus attacks helpert cells thereby lowering the victim s cellular immune response to other pathogens or infections 0 not directly attacking the system attacking the immune cells AIDS victim typically die of cancer or pneumonia 0 Retrovirus has strands of RNA that when enter a host cells form DNA that gets incorporated into Host cells with the help of reverse transcriptase DNA 9 RNA 9 Protein I virus surrounded by glycoproteins that grab on to host cells and attack target cells 0 When HIV changes into AIDS your body is exposed to more symptoms that slowly deteriorate the body 0 Antiretroviral drugs help during HIV 0 O Homeostasis o The flow of water across a semipermeable membrane 0 Osmolarity is the relative concentration of solutes in a solution 0 Ifa cell has a low concentration and placed in a high concentration water will flow from low concentration to high concentration down the gradient If low concentration moves into a high concentration cell can result in cell rupturing o Maintaining a proper water balance is crucial Any shift can greatly disrupt the animal s internal balance Homeostasis helps maintain water level 0 Sea cucumbers o Echinoderms salinity concentration of salt NaCl internal body fluids have a salinity of about 35 parts per 1000 If it moves into fresh water the water gained by osmosis greatly exceeds water loss and ultimately results in the damage and death of the tissues They are restricted to a very precise salinity range 0 Osmoconformers passive osmotically 0 Internal fluid concentration is always in equilibrium with the sea water environment 0 Stenohaline they have a very restricted range of salinity that they can live in 0 Ocean is a stable environment 0 Estuaries not nearly as stable as most of the ocean 0 Very important in terms of animal life a lot of diversity many animals will go there to breed Where freshwater streams and rivers meet the ocean Salinity varies daily with each high and low tide Salinity can vary from 035 ppt in just a few hours Sea cucumbers struggle here but shore crabs do not Real estuaries are much more complex and do not necessarily fit this precise pattern There are distinct increases in salinity and extends the full depth During high tide most of the sea water is flowing into the estuary so the animal is exposed to oceanic salinity levels During low tide the animal is exposed to fresh water salinity levels 0 Some animals migrate with the tide others can tolerate the ranges in salinity 0000000 0 Distribution of organisms in estuaries o Euryhaline marine species are the most abundant stenohaline marine species are extremely limited to the higher salinity range gt30 brackishwater species range between 0 and 20 and freshwater species are mainly around 15 salinity but can range up to 15 Osmoregulators Shore Crabs 0 Maintain relatively constant internal fluid concentrations despite changes in external environment 0 Are hyperosmotic when environmental salinity drops 0 Euryhaline can withstand a large range of salinity Salmon migrate back and forth between fresh water and salt water spawn in fresh water streams in the west coast by alaska as they develop they move downstream and as they develop into adults over time their body starts to prepare itself for a higher salinity of the ocean they will spend several years in the pacific and migrate back home into the specific stream they were hatched from to reproduce then die after a week of reproducing 0 Body fluids lie in the middle range of salinity 0 When the salmon move into the ocean water 35ppt they lose water through osmosis and drink a lot of seawater specialized structures on the gills excrete the excess salt and the kidneys produce small quantities of salty urine 0 When the fish return back to the mouths of the rivers the freshwater is at Oppt they gain water through osmosis they do not drink and instead the gills actively absorb salts and the kidneys will produce large volumes of dilute urine to help rid the excess water to maintain normal fluid balance Fresh water vs Salt Water 0 Salt water bony fish are descendants from fresh water bony fish Salinity ranges are about the same 12ppt o In fresh water fish to remain hyperosmotic they actively absorb salt across their gills the intestine will release some waste but as the fluid passes from the blood system into the kidneys the kidneys process this fluid by absorbing some of the calcium and excreting very dilute urine o In marine fish they are hyposmotic to the environment so they tend to drink a lot of seawater to replace that water the gills will actively secrete the salts and results in water loss The stomach helps absorption by passively absorbing salts and water the kidney excretes some of the salts with very little water Mostly NaCl and MgSO4 In terrestrial animals water evaporates through respiratory surfaces and through urination 0 There are many different mechanisms terrestrial animals use I Behavior during the day they remain in their burrows where it is cool mainly rely on drinking water and water from food but a lot can be obtained through metabolic processes cellular respiration o Humans gain most of their water through drinking while Kangaroo rats get their water intake from metabolic water I Humans tend to lose most of their water through urine and evaporation while Kangaroo rats mainly lose their water through evaporation through lungs and skin Homeostasis Water balance in humans with a decrease in water the receptors in the kidneys send a signal to the hypothalamus the anterior pituitary receives signal and releases ADH causing nephrons to increase permeability leading to more H20 retained causing a decrease in osmotic concentration in the blood Dietary Protein 0 Amino acids must have their NHZ amino groups removed before being used in cellular respiration Fish Ammonia is a very concentrated form and can become toxic if in the body for too long Mammals and others much less toxic form removed Urea Reptiles and Birds secrete Uric acid advantage is that it requires very little water to produce gets secreted as more of a dry substance combination of uric acid and feces Kidneys 0 Most animals have some form of a kidney whether simple or complex 0 Flatworms have no circulatory system I diffusion through skin I osmoregulatory process consists of tubes I flame cells are closed on both ends with cilia on one end to bring in the fluids water passes down various tubes where it gets processed some materials are absorbed some tubes connect with external environment 0 flame cells usher excretory products via special conduction vessels to the outside 0 Cells that initially collect the excretory product have many cilia and when they beat to create a flow they appear as a quotflamequot o Flatworms do not have a circulatory system and thus cannot transport wastes by that method 0 Earthworms nephridia function as the kidney communicate between 2 segments have a funnel nephrostome and open to the external environment through a nephridiopore I Nephridia are paired structures in most segments I The nephrostome is open to the body cavity and is nonselective area of initial urine I There is further modification via the nephric tubule and capillary network I The excretory material at the nephridiopore is thus very different area of final urine 0 Crayfish I Antennal glands or quotgreen glands serve as excretory structures in crayfish and other crustaceans I Fluids filter into the gland by blood pressure as in mammals and reabsorption occurs quotdownstreamquot everything happens posterior to where it s actually secreted I Antennal glands are closely related with the hemolyph system as materials pass through the tubules you get selective reabsorption and active secretion moves to the bladder and secreted through a duct 0 Grasshoppers amp Insect I Malpighian tubules 0 Closed end tubules that extend from midgut to hindgut solutes are actively transported into tubules with water products moved into rectum and processed further by cells 0 Important for elimination of nitrogenbased waste known as uric acid 0 These tubes are closed at far end and are bathed by the coelomic fluids o Unite with the hindgut o Rectum conserves water uric acid is thus quotpastyquot semisolid 0 sodium potassium and uric acid are actively transported into tubules requires energy 0 Water enters tubules passively o Uric acid gets excreted out rectum o Freshwater Fish 0 Gills active absorption of NaCl water enters osmotically o Kidneys excretion ofdilute urine I Glomerulus and tubule active tubular reabsorption of NaCI 0 Marine Fish 0 Gills active secretion of NaCl water loss 0 Stomach passive reabsorption of NaCl and water 0 Kidney excretion of MgSO4 urea little water I Active tubular secretion of MgSO4 o Intestinal wastes MgSO4 voided with feces
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