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Bio 106 Week 4 (Lectures 9 & 10)

by: Sheridan Lantz

Bio 106 Week 4 (Lectures 9 & 10) 2570

Marketplace > Washington State University > 2570 > Bio 106 Week 4 Lectures 9 10
Sheridan Lantz
GPA 3.89
Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee

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My notes are on lectures 9: Plant Structure, Growth and Development & 10:Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants. These notes have everything from the lecture slides with side notes o...
Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sheridan Lantz on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2570 at Washington State University taught by Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 144 views.


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Date Created: 02/06/15
Plant Structure Growth and Development continued Lecture 9 Concept 352 Meristems generate cells for primary and secondary growth Embryonic tissues Apical meristems Are located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots Lateral meristems Add thickness to woody plants through secondary growth Concept 353 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots Primary Growth of Roots Cortex Vascular cylinder Epidermis Dermal Ground Vascular Zone of Root hair maturation 1395 ifft If ig ff ff E B a M Zone of v f AA Q g Egg I g l 9 g g elongatlon rx i 53993 If 0 II quot mn 31 4 i E quotquot9 mm a 399quot Apical mer39Stem Zone of cell division Root cap 100 um Root cap Protects the delicate apical meristem as the root pushes through the abrasive soil Growth occurs just behind the tip in three overlapping zones of cells at successive stages of primary growth Zones Cell division elongation and differentiation Organization of tissue in young roots 39 Epidermis Vascular cylinder Pericycle Core of parenchyma cells Xylem Phloem b Transverse section of a monocot root with parenchyma in the center Transverse section of a typical gymnosperm and eudict root Pericycle 231 Vascular Xylem Phloem Emerging lateral Vascular f 39 5 cylinder quot quot quotquot7 uquotquot i2 Primary Growth of Shoots A shoot apical meristem Domeshaped at tip of terminal and axillary buds Gives rise to internodes and leafbearing nodes Gymnos amp most eudicots Vascular bundles arranged in a ring Monocots The vascular bundles are scattered throughout the ground tissue rather than forming a ring Tissue Organizations of Leaves The epidermal barrier in leaves ls interrupted by stomata The ground tissue in a leaf ls sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis The vascular tissue of each leaf ls continuous with the vascular tissue of the stem Concept 354 Secondary growth adds girth to stems and roots in woody plants Secondary growth Occurs in stems and roots of woody plants but rarely in leaves The secondary plant body Tissues produced by the and The vascular cambium Adds secondary xylem wood and secondary phloem The cork cambium Produces a tough thick covering of mainly cork cells Sap wood and hard wood Growth ring Vascular ray Heartwood Secondary xylem Sapwood Vascular cambium Secondary phloem Bark Layers of periderm Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants Lecture 10 Concept 361 Adaptations for acquiring resources were key steps in the evolution of vascular plants Shoot Architecture and Light Capture Root Architecture and Acquisition of Water and Minerals Concept 362 Different mechanism transport substances over short or long distances Occurs on three scales 0 Individual cells 0 Cell to cell 0 Longdistance transport Transport in a plant is driven by Short distance transport of solutes across plasma membranes Passive transport Active transport Short distance transport of water across plasma membranes Bulk flow Selectively transport solutes into and out of cells Active and passive transport solutes into and out of cells requires energy Proton Pumps create potential energy Hydrogen ion gradient and voltage gradient membrane potential that can do work Osmosis The absorption or loss of water by a cell Water Potential The physical property that predicts the direction in which water will flow Diffusion of Water osmosis Water potential I combines solute potential LIJS and pressure potential LIJp I Lle LIJID Solutes have a negative effect on LP by binding water molecules Positive pressure as a positive effect on I by pushing water Negative pressure tension has a negative effect on I by pulling water Initial flaccid cell JP 0 5 07 My 4 M sucrose solution mmpa Fe I Pure water PP 0 JP 0 5 o9 ws 0 ll o9 MPa p 0 MPa a Initial conditions cellular ll gt environmental p b Initial conditions cellular p lt environmental Lp Cosngw39 lt0 2088 Pearsor Ecucanon Inc pmlishmg as Pearson Beniam n Cumm ngs Xylem sap Outside air 1p Mesophyll 1ooo Mpa cells Stoma Leaf Lp air spaces 7 water 3970 Mpa molecule Leaf ll cell walls 0 TransPlratlon Atmosphere 10 Mpa F 00 Adhesion kl 1 by hydrogen 0 bonding a Cell i a wall a 2 Trunk xylem ll 1quot 53x o3 Mpa 0 Cohesion 3 Cohesion and by hydrogen adhesion in bonding 01the xylem Water molecule 6 3 9 Root Trunk xylem ll hair 06 Mpa 39 Soquot i quot 6 Soil p partlcle 03 Mpa Water from soil Concept 363 Transpiration drives the transport of water and minerals from roots to shoots via the xylem Apoplastic route Uptake of soil solution by the hydrophilic walls of root hairs provides access to the apoplast Water and minerals can then diffuse into the cortex along this matrix of walls and extracellular spaces Symplastic route Minerals and water that cross the plasma membranes of root hairs can enter the symplast Transmembrane route As soil solution moves along the apoplast some water and minerals are transported into the protoplasts of cells of the epidermis and cortex and then move inward via the symplast Stomata Concept 364 The rate of transpiration is regulated by stomata About 90 of the water a plant loses escapes through stomata High surface to volume ratios Increase photosynthesis but also increases water loss through stomata Concept 365 Sugars are transported from leaves and other sources to sites of use or storage Movement from Sugar Sources to Sugar Sinks Phloem sap o Is an aqueous solution that is mostly sucrose 0 Travels from a sugar source to a sugar sink Phloem loading can require active transport Proton pumping and cotransport of sucrose and H Process 1 Loading of sugar 2 Uptake of water 3 Unloading of sugar 4 Water recycled l clicker questions In flowering plants pollen is released from the B Stigma C Carpel D Filament E Pollen tube Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil A Ta root C The thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem D Storage roots E The root apical meristem One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that A Only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem B Root cells have cell walls and leaf cells do not D Vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves E Leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not Active transport of various materials in plants at the cellular level requires all of the following expect A A proton gradient B ATP C Membrane potential D Transport proteins The value for W in root tissue was found to be 015 MPa If you take the root tissue and place it in a solution that has W 023 MPa the net water flow would Be from the tissue into the sucrose solution Be from the sucrose solution into the tissue Be net flow in both directions and the concentrations would remain Occur only as ATP was hydrolyzed in the tissue Be impossible to determine from the values given here mpowgt


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