FemSt 40 Women, Representation, and Cultural Production
FemSt 40 Women, Representation, and Cultural Production
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Date Created: 04/02/14
Love and Basketball 2000 Gina PrinceBythewood April 2 2014 Wanting to write film after writing scripts interview always stood her ground didnt want to make changes that a lot of others wanted her to do so she stuck to what she wanted to do Significant that helped her gain way in her career was that she knew Bill Cosby If cultural producer outside of mainstream want to get work out in front of audience word of mouth social media sites etc most commercially successful film created by a person of color Love and Basketball rarely get the money you need but she ended up getting more than what she asked for Particular cultural forms will affect particular groups of people in a particular way meaningful representations and non meaningfu representations asked to direct disappearing acts 2000 after completing Love and Basketball How people engage with particular forms disappearing acts cultural analysis through the audience Love and Basketball almost got an X rating because of the sex scene between black couples followed in the footsteps of the film The Color Purple black women went to theatre engrossed to see the movie It was broadcasted through the medie newspapers etc ability to engage with what is meaningful to YOU when you go see a movie your own cultural analysis ability to sift out and find what is meaningful black female audiences demonstrated by taking dates groups and solo to show their interest in the film next movieWaiting to Exhale women realized that they had a power to keep the movie in theatres by continuously going to see the film they would take buses filled with women The Women in Brewster Place Oprah helped get movies onto ABC Particular audiences realized that they were not cultural dupes and that the audience number increased over the two day showing of the film on tv Disapearing Acts had cross over appeal Audiences knew it was going to appear on HBO Wasn39t just black audiences who sat at home and watched the film Secret Life of Bees 2008 where a black female is directing something Love and Basketball Significant within two areas Females in Sports Black Women Filmmakers what Blythewood had to deal with Females in Sports Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 Re named in 2002 The Patsy T Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act Notjust about sports ex female pregnant in school had to immediately drop out and be homeschooled quotDollared Demographicquot 1994 Dollar sale of women39s athletic footwear topped the sale of men39s 6 billion on women 56 billion for men Nike Commercial 3939If you let me play3939 Black Women Film Makers Noteable Achievements Daughters of the Dust 1991 Dash first film directed by black female in theatrical release only in about 5 theatres selected for the National Film Registry 2004 films considered to have historical significance Tuesday Morning Ride 1995 Houston part of a showtime short film showcase only about 30mins significance first film directed by a black female to be nominated for an Academy Award Finding Christa 1991 Billops Independent Film Won the Grand Jury Prize for documentaries at Sundance Film Festival Middle of Nowhere 2012 Duvernay elected best director at Sundance Film Festival Women Representation and Cultural Production Image Creation and Representation Representation involves practices of image creation What are politics of image How was it created What don39t you see What is left out Representation is a social process of creating these images Change over time with historic and social context Politics and Representation Social Process Meanings and Associations Change over time and Contexts Love and Basketball Film Showing April 2 2014 1981 Mother wants her to be less like a boy quotstop running around like a boyquot Idol is Magic Mike Michael Jordan Others thinks that she is different Mother tries to get her to wear dresses make her look and hopefully act more like a girl Boy next door Quincy is crushing on her asked to be his girthen they start gh ng 1988 Plays ball for high school 32 hoping to get recruited for college Wearjersey instead of an apron mom wonders when she will grow out of her phase Quincy is bball playerjust like his dad wants him to get an education Both parents want them to get degrees not big on the bball future Gotta lose her attitude in order to get recruited but she argues that guys like her neighbor who have attitude get a pat on the back yet she gets yelled at to act more like a girl a drop the attitude Quincy leaves his house when parents are fighting and stays in Monicas room to avoid hearing them fight Mom gave her pearls to wear to the spring dance she is still upset about losing the championship game the day before She got accepted to USC and then she and Quincy started kissing but then she invited him in her roomthey did it 1989 Monica is at USC with boyfriend Quincy Everyone on the team teases her makes it harder for her to play she tells beoyfriend it is easier for him because he has a quotred carpet laid out for himquot and it is harder for her Dad tells Quincy to slow down and get an education NBA is not a big future for him Dad had a lawsuit against him for years where some girl tried to claim he was her baby39s daddy Turns out his dad was cheating mom hired someone to follow him Note girls games were played in small gym whereas guys played in major basketall court that was being filmed live Quincy breaks up with Monica because he is going through a lot draft dad issues etc 1993 Monica plays for Vigo team coach talks in Spanish Been there for seven months over there they are famous wonder if she should go back to America Quincy plays for the Lakers fell and had an accident tore his ACL Quincy is engaged to TYRA BANKS took Monica for a surprise Monica tells her mom how she really feels upset that her mom never came to one of her games mad that her mom never stood up for herself or followed her dreams etc Quincy is thinking of going back to school quitting basketball They haven39t spoken in 5 years and she tells him now how she feels she wants to play him for his heart Married with kid with Quincy April 7 2014 When you have been messed with in society and there are structures in society against you How do particular representations affect people who see themselves differently Recap on Love and Basketbal Setting Was during the 1980s time period If a young girl wants to play basketball there are blocks The only way to playprofessionally she had to leave the country How her mother sees her Lesbian comment at the dinner table Mother 3939I would like to have done something else but I got pregnantquot 0 Housewife gender specific not homemaker not gender specific Particular things addressed in the film Sex Scene made the film almost get an X rating promoted safe sex Took time to show the guy putting on the condom protrayed her in pain demonstrated through facial expressions that the act of sex hurt included the line quotdo you want me to stopquot in order to demonstrate that the male was aware of how she was feeling 0 Mainstream idea of black females was not portrayed in the film Bastard Out of Carolina Dorothy Allison Describes the family as quotpoor white trashquot Be careful how we use particular languages Wanted to show us what it was like to be in one of these families Wanted to show us how people get caught in particular ways that the family has always been over time Looking at structures that people are born into structure of geographic location structure of where you were born in birth line etc Structures generate patterns that are repeated throughout generations ex Boatwrights Woman39sjob is to take care of men Men drink fight go to jail have serious strength for family 0 Men okay with going to jail because it was conidered normal How do people break out of these structures that there are located in Agency comes from a cultural form Politics of Representation Social Process meanings have associations Image creation and meanings change over time and they change in a socialhistorical context Potency of Representation Through Cultural Forms Have potential to play formative role 0 People who watch a lot of television feel that the world is unsafe lot of police are portrayed in a favorable way Representations play a formative role in political and social life Responsibility Considerations of what is put in Considerations of what is left out quotLines of Tendencyquot Ideological Pressure Stuart Hall the way in which you see the world ex growing up you want good grades so that you can go to best university Reproduction of the Familiar Producers in Hollywood under pressure to produce the familiar even if they haven39t experienced it themselves Easy to believe that there is a conspiracy Cultural producers are under ideolgical pressure to produce the familiar Transformation Disruption ex Love and Basketball in which Quincy is upset about his dad and the girl said she had to go because of her curfew He was famous and in good standing so he was able to skip but she couldn39t Reorganization of elements of a cultural practice Alternate Configurations look at something that is different Reconstitution of particular elements a whole new way to look at something that was familiar to you Interpretive Communities Cultural Producers people who create it Cultural Critics people who engage in strategic interpretations Cultural Consumers people who have the most power yes i will watch it no i will not watch it etc Image Reconstruction Reconfiguring of Images Awareness of Social Circumstances How Bone becomes aware of how her family is treated and she reacts to it happens gradually over time usually in cultural form Connection to Social Movement When it is connected to a socialcultural movement it has power especially power in cultural forms Components of Cultural Movement Reclaim History Reconstruct and re represent Document Share Goal Reconfiguration of existing social order When someone brings about a cultural form you can bring about awareness If people can39t see it or participate in it it won39t get as much attention Bastard out of Carolina Novel published in 1992 Film shown on Showtime in 1996 4 yearjourney Showtime had rights to novel paid Dorothy Allison 25000 and new director Showtime did not want to air the film in 1996 because it was too detailed on abuse rape etc Was aired with disclaimers and at a non primetime show time Allison talks about her goal in writing the novel wanted to show a larger audience that the mythology of poor white people was larger and greater than many people think Wanted to show why the men drink why women hate themselves and get old and can39t protect themselves and children show real humans and not fold up cardboard figures Not gonna understand and not gonna forgive Anney for the way Daddy Glenn treats Bone Setting Greenville SC Time 19501963 Family The Boatwrights How the story is told Structure young girl as narrator Storytelling Offers perspective and Reflection every person in the family tells stories stories offer Bone perspective and reflection Gospel Music Repeats and Emotional Resonance storytelling is like gospel music April 9 2014 How the Story is Told Review Structure young girl as a narrator Storytelling offers perspective and reflection agency your understanding that you can do something about the forces acting upon you Gospel Music Repeats and Emotional Resonances difference in sense of history family Key Themes Family Boatwright love can39t keep them from eating at each other pg 10 Hoplessness Waste of life through drinking fighting constantly moving not having a sense of belonging in the family legacy of being poor 0 Bone39s hunger makes her restless the feeling of not actually having food to eat hunger for other things like access to things that are denied to you both figurative and literal hunger pg 71 0 pg 8182 quotRent would be late one month impossible the nextquot quotNot bad people not even really poorWe always pay just not always when people wantquot 0 Bone Rage journey towards empowerment revenge for candy store with the Hook when she visits uncle Earle in the prison 0 Pg 206 quotLooked at mother and aunts and bodies and knew what they wereooked up from book at momsharp flash went through herthat39s who I would be part of the trashquot Betrayal 2 Forms Betrayal between mother and daughter mother doesn39t do anything about the abuse towards her daughter DiDi Ruth39s daughter wants to be different from family 2 Betrayal of women by women Alma and Carr Carr is in love with Alma39s husband always has A lot of women found that in order to release their unhappiness concerning children they have another child Men were allowed to act as old children Anney hated being called trash thats why she kept trying to get the stamp removed from Bone39s birth certificate Anney39s handwriting is the one thing she is extremely proud of Novel Examines Class Socioeconomic location Gender Men drink and act out women take care of men Race pg 170 Shannon Pearl albino family won39t book the colored people for gospel singing Shannon compares the Boatwrights to black people when she and Bone get into a fight quotEverybody knows your family is just drunks bastardseverybody knows who you arequot First time Bone39s anger really shows and her rage saves her 0 Rage Visits uncle earle in prison uncle earle made a knife from the materials in the prisonshe is proud of him for fighting back quotwe are smarter than you think we arequot 0 Rage Breaking into convenience store Grey faced men who looked like her uncles she told them that the store was wide open out of revenge Sexuality Materbating reasons emotional brutality level of disfunction in families Bone39s storytelling is about sexual fantasies converts her guilt to masturbatory instances complex mix of guilt and desire love and hate of someone Bastard Out of Carolina Film Director Angelica Huston Key Production personal are female The Making of Bastard Out of Carolina Allison39s experience Stepfather would beat her sometimes even publicly She was afraid that nobody would believe the things she went through 0 Book was a tribute to her family wanted to paint a beautiful picture of the horrifying white trash family Only way to overcome this problem is to meet other people who had experienced the same things Allison No Movie Showing Notes because we read the book April 14 2014 Oprah39s interview The Color Purple Broadway Producer took 8 years to come to life Variety of people in the audience White people black people rich people poor people Book then movie then musical Oprah39s involvement was a blessing for them It is a story people can identify with not a white story not a black story Cultural Consumers are significant in both The Color Purple and The Women of Brewster Place Women of Brewster Place Novel 1982 by Gloria Naylor Film 1989 Donna Deitch Major Characters Mattie Michael Had to find a place to live with her son Basil she was an unwed black woman with a child so it was difficult for her to find a place to stay was helped by Miss Eva and taken in under her care Etta Mae Johnson Old lady who tries to act young she is hoping to find a man who will marry her and take care of her goes out with the preacher of Mattie s church and he has his way with her and then dumps her Other Characters Kiswana Brown changed her name boyfriend Abshu put on the play in the park Kiswana is the only one who is actually able to leave Brewster Place at any moments notice because she has the resources to do so Ceil Lucielia Turner lived with Mattie and Miss Eva Lives in Brewster Place with Eugene had a daughter who died while parents were fighting stops living after her daughter dies Mattie brings her back into the living world she can make it through Cora Lee loves baby dolls has seven kids watches soap operas alll day lives off of ffood stamps is the prototypical welfare put in this position for a reason for some reason she loves babies but once kids are no longer babies she doesn39t like them Kiswana takes her and kids to play in park The Two Lorraine and Theresa Lorraine and Theresa are lesbian and black women so no matter where they go they are always frowned upon women shy away and talk about them and this lack of support and comfort for the women is what led to Lorraine getting raped Lorraine would be so paranoid about people talking about the two of them that she would make her and Theresa move all over Other Characters Those who played a role that affected the main characters in some way Butch Fuller gets Mattie pregnant they have a son named Basil Mattie couldn39t tell her dad about the pregnancy because Butch was a quotbad boyquot and she was her dad39s prize afraid that if she told her dad he would kill Butch so she left Ben handyman and janitor of Brewster Place also came from the south he has a daughter who was disabled and his wife would let the white owner of their land have sex with their daughter daughter left and so Ben moved to Brewster Miss Sophie Spread the rumors about the two lesbians busybody CC Baker gangster guy who rapes Lorraine with his group of friends Time of the novel Mattie moves from Rock Vale Tenn to another city up North about 1941 Mattie moves in with Miss Eva about 1951 lives in the house for about 30 years Mattie moves to Brewster Place about 1980 The Matus Article Reference to Hughes poem in the beginning of the novel the importance of dreams the women in the novel and film have unfulfilled dreams and aspirations IMPORTANT Demonic Imagery Matus writes the chapter about quotThe Block Partyquot there is quotdemonic imageryquot unfulfilled human desire which can lead to violent actions the tearing at the bricks in the wall Block party is Dream Sequence The imagery conveyed leads to the catharsis of resistancee and aggression 0 leading to a possible revelation or understanding of circumstances 0 collective dream is symbolic act that can only find resolution in the aesthetic or art realm When Lorraine is raped she is wearing black and green dress but when she gets raped she is bloody so there are 3 colors red black and green to represent the rape of Africa the brutality etc The Importance of the film Explores what is left out of the mainstream feminist analysis Alternative examination of Black women39s lives and histories April 21 2014 Patsy T Mink Title IX And Women39s Sports Patsy Mink 19272002 One of the Cosponsers of the Title IX Global Significance of Women Winning 1999 World Cup discussed in course reader article tied into Patsy Minks Title IX Title IX Amendment renamed in 2002 Patsy T Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act Pg 69 Brief article discussing origin challenges and significance of Title IX 0 quotNo person in the United States shall on te basis of sex be excluded from participation in be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistancequot Title IX it applies to educational institutions much more effective when having to do with sports Title IX makes it so that pregnant women must be accommodated in school Patsy T Mink First woman of color elected to US Congress 1964 Mink and family were inerned after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor Dec 7 1941 0 significant in looking at Japanese in United States president signed to have Japanese sent to quotconcentration campsquot as they are called today 0 By 1988 push for second generation Japanese 0 Those who were interned got reperations and apologies from president 0 Those who were interned while attending school were given their degree as a form of apology Applications to medical schools were rejected because she was female Attended University of Chicago Law School admitted on foreign quota Married John Mink daughter in 1952 After election to US Congress in 1964 spoke out against the Vitnam War Ran for president of US from Oregon in 1972 in protest against the Vietnam War After attacks of Sept 11 2001 Mink voted against the Patriot Act fet it was a violation of American civil liberties Strong advocate of rights of poor people education health care one of chief sponsor for pell grants Mink39s background and activism form the basis for feminist activism leading to the passage of Title IX collective activism versus individual advancement Sport As Stealth Feminism of the Third Wave Course Reader article 0 O O 1996 Olympics in Atlanta Gold for women in Basketball and Soccer Nike ad 3939If you let me playquot Mass Media emphasize sports as a mechanism for individual goals rather than collective historical activism Sport as mechanism for individual goals Sport can be a mechanism to bring attention to the rights for females Reactions and backlash to media blitz about women39s sport success Pg 88 amp 93 3 other books that are a backlash toward women39s achievements Pg 95 quotnewly iconic image of the female athlete is one of the few sites of resistance against the trend of antifeministsquot but it is not without its own backlash emphasis can be confusing for females and young girls when looking at mass media they focus on individual achievement related to title of article Pg 102 reciprocal relationship of feminism and women39s sports one of the pivotal events that brought global attention 1999 Women39s World Cup Soccer Victory Dare To Dream Video World Cup at Rose Bowl articles that were posted concerned about no one showing up Many of the female players would stay to sign autographs needed the support selling tickets on the sideline of girl39s soccer games to get the grassroot audience Had to be confident many peoplereporters would tell them that wouldn39t be able to sell out Sold out Giant39s stadium the were proud that people looked like they were quotgoing to a football gamequot Made it on the front page of the paper notjust the sports paper They were making a difference in the world World Cup at Rose Bowl was US versus China 90000 people Guys would have I love Mia Hamm across their chest When the girl who kicked the winning goal she took her shirt off and waved it around sports bra showing Woman athlete did not want to be on the sidelines anymore they wanted to be on the field Women had won the World Cup in 1991 but no one noticed They were not supported financially had to travel eat boxed lunches etc Women in 1996 no media to advertise it Sports Bra Showing after winning goal Today women in sports bra39s is no big deal it depends on the time people were not accustomed to seeing women in sports bras and being athletically built during this time so it brought about a lot of controversy authors talk about backlash given to female athlete success Relate Feminism to the quotFquot Word lots of people thinkfeminism means lesbian always a battle against market forces Title IX gets fought against 3 prong test and one arguent is that if you expand on female programs it will take away from male programs Battle against female expansion very historical this team has been around since my grandpa blah blah blah Section Week 2 How gender expectations affect basketball performance Play internationally in order to play professionally because she was female Girls played in small crappy gym whereas guys played in big gym with video cameras Anger management because she was a girl she was scolded more than guys who were just showing competitiveness Monica and her mom had a hard time relating to each other because of their differences in terms of gender Why did producer include so many stereotypes while trying to defeat others Contrast between mother and daughteruse an example to show what they are fighting against Only her and not everyone else so it helps her stand out more Emphasize that this sort of thing can happen Consider time and location of the situations as well Hope because she was able to do what she wanted to do with her life breaking out of the system How strongly is feminism protrayed throughout the movie when it was all about a man in order to have successful In the end she was out playing while he was in the stands with the kid Roles reversed Less about her NEEDING a man but more about having both the love of her life and the sport she loves to play Basketball Women can WANT both and this does not make women less strong and dependent on men It does not show weakness when we follow social norms Are current movies showing us that women39s worth determined by how much she identifies with masculine behaviors Shift focusing on men doing more feminine things to show success Glass ceiling still exists sometimes but overall equality in the media is what they are aiming for Concepts about Sex Scene What did the producer try to tell about this group of people Positive light on that group of people Guys are considerate not really portrayed in other movies Showing that Monica can be aggressive but during the sex scene she was covering her body and being more feminine You can have both a masculine and feminine side Concept Lines of Tendency where producers display what they are familiar with Producer tried to provide an alternate way to see this group What social culture and gender expectations would be different in a different time penod Not as many gender stereotypes andexpectations more liberal in CA today Lots have gotten over the stereotypes from then now it is more accepting of blacks More comfortable with the sex scene Racism wasn39t a huge part of the film but today it would not have been such an influential film There are a lot of opportunities for women today Section Week 3 Why was the birth certificate such an important deal Could have been such a prideful person Book was called Bastard out of Carolina Bone was the bastard because her father39s name wasn39t even on the birth certificate People from restaurant always made fun of Anney for having it had to let it go in order to stop the people Who did it mean more to Anney Bone never even asked about her birth certificate and she always felt like she belonged regardless of the fact that she didn39t have her father in the picture Way of protecting her child from getting labeled and having it follow her all of her life Did Bone break away from the notion of poor quotWhite trashquot Her mom leaving was her way of breaking away from the white trash notion Anney was always bringing Bone into horrible situations and bringing her into the notion of white trash Although there are things about Bone that don39t fit that white trash category she still stayed with her family and embraced it Anney and Bone were very similar in the fact that they kept what was going on in their family private not seeking help because it will jeopordize their lifestyle Awarenes of social system and have a reaction to it Bone grew out of it because she made the choice to stay away from mom and daddy glenn in order to protect herself whereas Anney went back to Glenn Bone39s rage also demonstrated her getting out of the system Why did Anney choose Daddy Glenn over her daughter Why does Bone still love her mother Loves her mom because her mom did care about her birth certificate finding men to take care of kids because she couldn39t you love family no matter what Maybe it was her last chance to be with a guy because she was considered quotoldquot so she didn39t want to risk never finding love again she is a very dependent person Anney was trying to preserve the image of family that she has worked so hard to attain Anney went with Glenn because she saw Glenn as her way out of the white trash system Glenn was from a very different type of family and she thought living with him would make her get away from her family and white trash Why bring in Shannon Pearl Good contrast to her family ugly person and it was a gateway for Bone into the gospel world by going with them she gets out of her gospel phase Her and Bone were somewhat similar outcasts showed that you can let abuse get to you and eventually kill you Symbolizes Bone breaking away she yelled and hit Shannon it was a defining moment when she started to have her break away from her previous notion April 23 2014 Patsy Mink Ahead of the Majority Film 0 Was the first woman of color in Congress 1965 Became first Asian American woman elected into Congress She was continuously swimming upstream because she was always going against the norm Deeply spiritual about her land Maui Father worked on sugar plantation aspired to have big dreams like doctor instead of girlyjob like nurse After Pearl Harbor Japanese Americans were seen as a threat Mink along with many other Americans that were Japanese felt terrible for being treating this way In Nebraska she was assigned to international dorm because she was Japanese American they wouldn39t let colored people into the main dormitiories Applied to many medical schools and was denied admission to them because she was female Met John Mink at school and decided to marry within 4 months his family gave blessing but her grandparents didn39t support it No one would hire her got a job at a law library couldn39t get a lawjob because of discrimination due to both gender and race Had a daughter Patsy found politics exhilerating knocked on doors of everyone when she ran for the first time to enter in to congress her grassroots idea worked Interview some would arguethat Hawaii is so far away from America that they don39t know or can39t understand the issues that are going on in American states Hawaii gained statehood Ran against Dan louyke for House of Representative seat Lost by a landslide Even though she lost she carried fonlvard John Mink was always supportive of his wife They shared a true love relationship In 1964 Mink tried to run for US House again never gave up Known for her ability to speak for the people first woman of color in the US House of Representatives Mink served on Education and Labor Committee One issue overshadowed all others many soldiers in Vietnam Mink felt the conflict in Vietam was a civil war and that it was not a problem for the US to be involved in She was seen as a poor American because she did not support the war went on a Peace Trip to meet with Vietnamese to obtain facts and find some way to end the bloodshed was criticized for taking this trip She was nominated by Oregon to run for president was not backed by the Democratic Party whatsoever Had black tags black construction paper on something meant that it was urgent and needed to be done immediately so many people began to fear black construction paper in her office Mink Title IX established equal oportunity for women in education financial aid and sports brought up a lot of issues much of the money that was in the budget for men39s sport team went towards women39s tried to exclude college sports from Title IX but vote kept it in act Wanted to give up her seat in House to run for Senate lost to an older male Moved back to Honolulu and got chair in City Council ran for governor of Hawaii and Mayor in Honolulu lost both old seat in Congress opened up ran for US House again Experience of a lifetime and she won She realized that things in the House were very different since the 6039s less liberals less in education budget etc Welfare issue welfare reform proposal amendment was not approved even though they fought so hard huge loss for Mink she continued to help poverty but everything failed In 2002 she was diagnosed with the chicken pox checked in to the hospital and was in intensive care she died in hospital On the day she was born God Blessed America Section Week 4 What was the significance of the wall to the women of Brewster Place Why was it important to tear it down Supposed to be a busy town that thrived financially but after putting the wall it it never hit its potential Interesting how the women were never really a close community and then at the end they puled together to tear down the wall as a supportive network Felt that the wall confined them and breaking down the wall was a way for them to break away from being trapped in the positions they were in Community of Brester was considered poor black people Mattie was upset about the blood on the wall it resembled their hopelessness so they needed to tear it down Why seperate each chapter with a different character rather than have it flow like a novel nomarrly Shows how each character was independent and then they united at the end of the novel at block party Book was different from movie book was independent characters whereas movie meshed in the middle certain events Makes for a better narrative when dividing it up you get individual perspectives Each person was a main character versus having a confusion of who was important and who was not The disunity of the women they were mostly about themselves and this is what caused Lorraine to get raped because no one really supported anyone else aside from themselves They each come from different worlds so even though they all live in the same place they are still diverse and have different experiences Conflict between Kiswana and her mom How does Kiswana moving away from home and quitting college show her pride for her heritage Her mom just wanted what was best for her Kiswana was raised in an environment where everything was done a certain way and she wanted to prove her mom wrong by proving that there is no one way to be successful in life Kiswana wanted to help people of Brewster because she would be able to measure her success by getting an immediate reaction from people She should have helped herself before trying to help others finish school then help others but she decided to give up her education to help others below her Showing that she didn39t need a degree to be educated Just because she changes her name doesn39t mean that she understands where these people come from example of the trash she assumes that Cora Lee doesn39t feed her kids so they eat out of the garbarge and uses sugar excuse but Kiswana thinks it is only an excuse to hide her inability to take care of kids Kiswana was criticized for this How would the homosexuality be portrayed differently if the movie was filmed today Because homoexuality is so quotpopularquot today it is more common to be exposed to it so it is not criticized as much today Women would feel more comfortable as a couple there would be less tension between Lorraine and Theresa as a couple because there would be no quottheyquot that Lorraine was constantly worried about in every area that they lived in Would be less stress about finding out if you were gay or not school teachers today aren39t criticized for that sort of thing in public school system so she wouldn39t have anything to fear Relationship would be different if societies perspective changed Theresa and Lorraine had argument about being different because of homosexuality today there are more places where you can feel accepted and not different for being homosexual Depends on the location in Korea the reaction to gay couples is still the same as in Brewster Place because it is not as common over there as it is here April 28 2014 Eulogy of a Brown Angel 1992 by Lucha Corpi Very political novel Lucha Corpi is a Chicana Feminist First Mystery Novel in a series featuring Gloria Damasco Marginalized writers turned to mystery form because they are going where their readers are going Took place during two different time periods Have gone to mystery novels to go to audiences that they want to reach How do people at grassroots level become AWARE of their social circumstancesConsciousness and Agency of you doing something not waiting for someone else to tell you to both of these are in Eulogy of Brown Angel Reorganize elements in representation what Corpi did Connected cultural movement with a social movement novel Corpi was partof the Chicana movement What was Chicano movement fighting for particular rights that are talked about in Eulogy disproportionate drafting of Chicano men immigration rights lack of avaiability of citizenship Lucha Corpi Eulogy of a Brown Angel 1992 first book she wrote Cactus Blood 1995 Black Widow39s Wardrobe 1999 Crimson Moon 2004 Death at Solstice 2009 O O O Corpi belongs to two traditions Mystery writers of color Feminist mystery writers In the counter traditions of writers of color mystery writers feminist and gay and lesbian mystery writers Investigators of history and identity Who are we as Cicano39s in the movement and how are we as Chicano39s We writes about brother Paul global oppresion The little boy is killed because of the global opression of the Chicano there is a re telling and re presenting of historical events recasting of a social world and interrogation of the existing social order When they find the boy one is going to call the police not everyone thinks the police is their friend if they use their chicano surname there is going to be a delay 0 There is an examination of the social world that is there have turned to detective fiction to discuss political issues raised within and by popular movements they want to raise issues about popular movements 0 Major disruption of the killing of Ruben Salazar Corpi and Counter Traditions The entrance of quotmarginalizedquot authors writing mystery novels Investigations of History and Identity Writers who deliberately write with political intention within and against the tenets and structures of esablished mystery writing Counter Tradition Writers Walter Mosley Sara Paretsky Sue Grafton SB writer who did the alphabet mystery novels Sandra Scopettone first self identified Lesbian writer Feminist Counter Tradition Within the feminist counter tradition of mystery writing there is 0 Resistance 0 Subversion 0 Revision Corpi and the Feminist Mystery Novel Resistance the female character identifies injustice and knows that what is characterized as justice is in fact injustice when she talks about Mando who is part of a Chicano quotgangquot and how the gang is treated when she comes mortuary she sees stoners The main character is open to subjectivity and intuition how Gloria has the flights not supposed to tell people especially husband who is docto Corpi is characterizing the disagreements between Chicano Nationalists and the Chicanas intuition is not a part of the movement it is more reason and a sense of how Chicano culture survives family has to be a particular way and there are specific jobs for females but Eulogy doesn39t emphasize this Gloria is open to intuition and subjectivity Corpi and Subversion Violation of linear process structure of Eulogy novel is broken down into Part 1 Interlude and Part 2 Part 1 1970Chapters 114 lnterlude1970 1988 Chapters 1517 Part 21988 Chapters 1825 important in terms of looking at what do activists writers do differently from feminisits Part 1 Interlude first person of Gloria Part 2 third person Part 1 subjective perspective there are things she does not know Part 3 Objective perspective and distance use of the moritorium as framing device to skip years Notjust time difference but also a spacial difference seperation of time and space Absence of the authority figure as conventionally defined Use of multiple voices Corpi and Revision Female development in a malre ordered world feminist mystery novel reveal quotdisorderquot the ending is not a restoration or order the main character does not explain away disorder Police Detective Kenyon in novel described as very white taking pills very sympathetic Corpi undertakes a revision to Chicano specifically male presentations of identity and history Opens up a space for Chicanas and their contributions to the Movement Gives voice to Chicana attributes pg 35 Grandmother of the little boy Otilia Juarez there is a clear description of house rug on the floor Corpi is showing the difference of how Chicanos think of family the idea of cultural survival reason for description is an emphasis of the everyday We will see love and eroticism after Dario husband dies there is a connection between Gloria and Justin Escobar private detective Homeland for Chicanos Aztlan Corpi talks about how they are a nation within a nation Evolved from a conference in 1969 led to more visible protests Moratorium Eulogy re establishes dreams visions etc Video on Aztlan Americans saw it as Chicano39s betraying the nation Chicano39s saw it as them stating that they were there to stay they deserved to be treated the same Nixon widened the war in Vietnam protested the discrimination in the drafting laws deep respect for the military in America back in the day There were disproportionate deaths in vietnam war more chicanos than anyone else Arguments over Ruben Saazar39s death Due to a police officer shooting a tear gas bomb into a bar hit Ruben in the head Corpi talks about Ruben Salazar in the novel April 30 2014 Eulogy History Faith Fire Feminist Counter Tradition Mystery Writing Feminist Counter Tradition O O O O Creates essential subservieness expose the form turn the form inside out exposes form39s conservatism writers want to expose the form show that the ideal presented is a false ideal challenge readers to re think assumptions re thinking the assuptions of what is considered the ideal in society Resistence identifies injustice open to intuition GLORIA RELIED ON HER INTUITION Subversion non linear absence of authority STRUCTURE OF THE NOVEL LACK OF AUTHORITY EXAMPLE WAS KENYON THE OFFICER Revision reveal disorder Corpi undertakes a revision to Chicano specifically male presentations of identity and history SOLVING THE CRIME IS NOT THE POINT THE POINT IS TO SHOW THE FEMALE CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT female evolves within a male ordered world Opens up a space for Chicanas and contributions to the movement Gives voice to Chicana attributes Readers of crime fiction have been taught to read in a particular way feminist crime novels reveal disorder The ending of the novel is not a restoration of order At end of the novel Gloria39s best friend is killed Luisa why was she killed Corpi didn39t try to tell you that the world ends up back on its axis Paul killed his own son shows disorder Chicano nationalism meaning this is how political power should work How is the family treated Female is the caretaker house wife and that females had a particular way they had to be article discusses loyalists in order to be a loyalist you have to give up feminine qualities discussed traitors who were those who went against the movement History 0 O O 0 National Chicano Moratorium Over 70 people wounded Over 40 people arrested 3 people killed Ruben Salazar Angel Gilberto Diaz Lynn Ward REPITION OF NAMES IN THAT ORDER Prior Political Activism 1964 San Jose State College strike 1st organized student effort in the nation to bring attention to the needs of Chicanos THIS IS NOT THE FIRST STUDENT EFFORT BUT IT IS THE FIRST ORGANIZED EFFORT o Farmworkers struggles of the 1960s 70s and onward Strikes and boycotts grapes lettuce Gallo Safeway and others MARCH 3 1968 quotBlow Outquot Student Strike at Abraham Lincoln High School Extended across California with over 15000 students at 5 barrio schools walked out participating in a week and a half long strike Birth of quotBrown Powerquot and quotViva La Razaquot Image creation and Rrepresentation Alternative representations Eulogy the excerpt of Chicano and the protest O O O O O O ac on 0 Representation involves image creation This is a social process 0 Meanings in images are changed do not simply reflect or express play a formative role in political and social life 0 Process of meaning creation is a politically charged act 0 The manner in how a group is presented demonstrates how they will be treated Grassroots Activism 0 Against the idea of waiting for a leader Involves an awareness of social conditions Agency understanding that one has the capacity for action Victim Motif 0 Although people can be victimized political action is against the idea of oppressed people as victims 0 Oppressed people as victims is a common representation in documentaries and television news programs 0 Ifyou see yourself victimized you soo that you can do something about it o If you see yourself as a victim you are waiting for the idealistic other to come save you tthis presentation dissapates the force of what it is they are doing 0 The force of alternative representations you rethink the form of presentataion and the way you exist within a particular society Empowerment o Empowerment is not experienced as upward mobility or personal advancement o Empowerment is a process it is about collectivity Cultural analysis is important allows us to rethink Faith Even To the Fire Nuns for Social Justice 1992 Producers Sylvia Morales and Jean Victor narrator is Sylvia Morales Nominated for an academy award 0 Documentary three nuns and a feminist theologian who disagree with the CATHOLIC CHURCH and its paternalistic authority Excerpt A Crushing Love 2008 Directed by Sylvia Morales Mothers in the ChicanoChicana movement Martha Cotera author History and Heritage of Chicanas 1976 How women became activists Daughter Maria Cotera o Talks about her mother39s work quotarticulated a feminist position within the Chicano movement that transformed the governed politics of the Chicano movementquot 0 Cherrie Morago wrtierplaywrite lesbian activists o originated the concept of quotQueer Aztlanquot Pg 134 reader May 7 2014 Civil Brand 2002 Director Neema Barnette Fictional Examination of prison system and privitization of prisons Neema Barnette is most experienced black female director helped direct The Cosby Show Only black female television director was elected for an Emmy Award Before Civil Brand Prison Industrial Complex looks at politics and economics film was focused on young females of color in prison Economics of Prison Correctional officers union largest workforce in California Money spent on prisons more than that spent on California colleges and universities combined in interview she is using socially conscious hip hop stars wanted to do a film about prison because there are a lot of people in prison Those who work in prison industry have a lot of power Schwartzenager wanted to cut the salary of Correctional Officers and immediately they said no and that idea was tossed Once you have gone to prison it is more than likely that you will return Film is Examining the prison industrial complex and looking specifically of females in prison what led them there and how are they treated when they get there abuse and lack of treatment Prisons for Profit Collect telephone calls twenty minute blocks Ancillary businesses laundries food services construction and design The Film Production factors 14 days of shooting 5 days for editing Limited Distribution Currently seen on DVD and cable channels Barnette has a certain style that you can recognize They gave her 1 day a year later and the 5 days of editing and in that 1 day she managed to do 41 setups scenes Lion39s Gate told her to tae the film to the Festival Circuit it was enormously successful and won awards at Black Film Festival Representational Reparations Corrective Narrative o Colonization of the imagination Dominant systems of representation can constrain dehumanize disempower several different facits to reparations Cultural Opposition Intervention resistance can provide an intervention Decolonization of the mind appropriate revise and reenvision Colonized mind when you think that you are a part of something but you think differently Radosh article left handed nuns made her use right handed scissors she adjusted to it but there was a cost to it 0 makes you re think the world that you live in Women39s Crime Radosh article Grounded in history of exploitation physical and sexual pg 62 she gives statistics 80 of women are abused physically andor sexually Structural Inequality many times the women have themselves been trespassed upon in a patriarchl society how women are supposed to act the gender roles have been set any women who violate those gender roles and go to prison is considered quotunnaturalquot Marginalized social opportunity Convicted Survivors Intimate partner retaliation massive failure in justice system when women are punished for trying to protect her child by for example killing the man whois abusing them Crosss all demographic lines Failure ofjustice system Harsher sentences Differences from other female prisons In the Tube Female visitors to people in prison usually femae39s are the visitors at prisons Distinctly female space Collateral damage you are treated ike the people in the prison Secondary imprisonment once you have been in prison and committed a felony you are a felony you can never vote only certain states allow if you know someone who lives in puiblic assisstance housing you cannot go near them because you are considered a felon and they will lose their house Many times women will be affiliated with a male who is involved with drugs they are the ones sitting in the car and the females get longer sentences than males do victimless crime Most women who go to prison are mothers or they are taking care of children of males who are in prison May 12 2014 Mean Spirit 1990 Lina Hogan Chicksaw writer poet essayist novelist Taking you inside of a different world through detective form People not within mainstream use particular form Insider and Outsider talking to mainstream readers If you are not of the Native American culture this will be unfamiliar to you cultural negotiation Allowed into the world that she has created just because you want to enter that world does not mean you have the right to enter into it Many times access is going to be denied Hogan when you are looking at her work Native American historyculture it is a culture you will not understand but this does not mean that the culture is wrong what she is saying is that you do no have to competency it must be earned culture competency looking at other cultures and not placing a value on it Hogan when you are looking at the novel 1922 Native Americans in Oklahoma if people do things differently than the way you would it does not mean that they are wrong Example character Josh buys a car and grows tomatoes in it Through the form of the detective story she focuses on people who are killed and their land is taken from them or their family that is left to claim it Novel Place Talbert Native American name is Watona Oklahoma Time 1992 Linda Hogan Chicksaw writer poet essayist novelist 0 other books Solar Storms 1995 Power 1998 Mean Spirit Fictionalized account of murders in Indian Territory of Oklahoma in the 1920s when oil was discovered Grazing rights taken away along with other rights The Murders The events of the novel are based on actual murders that took place Names of murderers are the real names used by the author In reality the people who actually committed those crimes were realeased from prison after a short period of time because there were higher ups in the government involved in the killings Native American Writers Offer worldview that is not only different but also Challenges Western culture Holistic ecological perspective Values totality of existence it makes humanity equal instead of superior in novel they value snakes bats fire rocks etc Makes humans responsible for the world and those in it strong connection in novel to place and landscape In mean Spirit the author disrupts and destabilizes mainstream expectations draws on the traditional understandings of interdependece the author draws attention to historic acts of destruction Fire in Mean Spirit Both regenerative and destructive Possibility of hope renewal and survival Michael Horse diviner means he has a 6th sense keeps the traditional sacred fire lit at all times Destructive fires caused by corporate greed homes that have been blown up to kill native americans Mean Spirit of the Novel Mean Spirit is worldview that values destruction rather than renewal Malicious in contempt for others Selfish and grasping Natives retreat to hill country try to survive in this politicized economic destruction lmpoverished by narrowness of vision and actions Indigenous Perspective Given through intenlveaving thejournal entries of Michael Horse Keeps a journal and is writing a new book of the Bible Novel is not written as a quotwho done itquot because we know who did it unlike Eulogy Horse is documenting his experiences for historical reasons Horse feels that his 6th sense is going awry if he confides in something he questions it Horse says about native americans it was a fatal ignorance of how far others would go to destroy them Journals record loss of culture changing ecosystems murders fires Writes of American Legal system rules about whether the real story can be spoken did a wrong occur In watching the fires he writes a new chapter in the Bible Father Dunne Catholic Priest mainstream reader he has become so disenchanted with the outsiders and what has been done to native americans that he withdraws as they have done talks to Horse about new chapter in Bible you cannot tamper with the words of God Gospel According to Horse Horse believes that there are wrongs in the Bible he would like to correct pg 273 quotwhere does it say that all living things are equalquotBook of Horse wants to correct the mistakes in the Bible not do away with the Bible pg 359 quottake care of the earth and all her creaturesquot pg 361362 quothonor father sky and Mother Earthquot Linkages in the Novel The wounding of the earth and the calculated destruction of the Indian community Linked to governmental actions Linkages Government Actions that affect Native Americans 0 Dawes Act of 1887 many natives were relocated and placed in particular locations act took land away from them and gave them the opporunity to purchase 160 acres of crappy land barren land where the oil was while the best land was given to the richer people this was why people started getting killed 0 Competency Certificate other way for property and land to be taken away from native americans if they had land that they would offer use of for money were declared incompetent and appointed a legal guardian 0 Land Agents in control of property that they would lease to the westerners 0 Legal Guardians ex grace is killed and her daughter inherited the land nola given a legal guardian who could use her money however they wanted Child sent away to school children under the age of 16 were sent away Native Americans who discovered oil on their land they tried to hide it because they knew that they would get killed for it Belle Graycloud protested the killing of eagles the number is repeated 317 eagles were killed there are 317 indian reservations that number equates to the killings of the native americans who were placed on the lands Belle Grayclouds land was leased out to Hale quote quotthe earth bled oiquot emphasized the rage Linton Patricia The Detective Novel as Resistant Text Rules of Configuration familiar patterns that map out expectations 0 when you read something you have an expectation of how it will flow author is going to defeat us with rules of configuration the whole idea of manifest destiny is ingrained in our minds Linton says if you follow particular rules author will take you off track Expectations of Traditional Detective Story Has particular worldview that elicits a certain interpretation 0 o murder 0 clues 0 solution Solving the crime is not the main issue Detective is an insider outsider figure Native American detective from DC Stacey Redhawk who is supposed to give inside knowledge to this mystery he is our mentor to solve the crime Mean Spirit resist the reader39s will to know Insists on Cultural negotiation Working out of the boundaries between insideroutsider some access offered some intimacy can be earned other kinds of intimacy denied quotoutsiderquot reader not competent or entitled to quotknowquot or comprehend intimate truths of another culture Prohibition against entitlement resistant text readers are resistant to enter into the world that the author does not allow May 14 2014 In Whose Honor American Indian Mascots in Sports 1997 Director Jay Rosenstein Follows Native American graduate student Charlene Teters Major Push to get rid of the Mascot Washington Redskins Called Washington Football Team Starts off with Graduate Student takes them to basketball game Documentary looking at Native American Mascots Lots of Native Americans have been ignored or trivialized Back in the day there would be seperate counselors for Indian students as if they didnt have alphabetized last names and seperate busses that came in from the reservations Children in film at basketball game had been raised to recognize sacred symbols feathers costumer etc Charlene protested on her own dressed in costume and brought a drum quotIndians are human beings not mascotsquot It is a religion at some schools sports events Catered to financially mascots were serious about theirjob some wanted to be buried in a coffin the was shaped like the mascot Charlene Teters Greeaduate STudent at the University of Illinois UrbanaCampaign Has two children Views mascot Chief Illiniwek In Mean Spirit Nola Blanket Native American inheriter to oil fortune Mother is Grace Blanket who was killed over her oil land Married to White Man Willard John Forrest At the end of the novel Nola kills Willard About Will Forrest Pg 195 Will collects Native American artifacts that had belonged to dead and buried Native Americans Pg 353 What Nola thinks of Will quothe was not of her world either but part of the shadowy white world that was losing its focusquot 0 Pg 355quotwhen it was dark Will came home His day had been successful 0 O He39d turned a big profit selling his artifacts to a collector from the Eastquot and then Nola killed him Eagle Feathers are important because Belle Graycloud went to jail when she began protesting the killing of the eagles Mascot in the film has eagle feathers on it mean spirit politicized and economic perspective Eventually the school had to get rid of the mascot students would bring back the lllinoiwek mascot back during pre games and whatnot to protest against getting rid of him Some of the major universities Stanford had to get rid of their Native American mascot because some players on big teams were Native Americans Some had to get rid of mascot because other schools refused to play against them because of their mascot Documentary Chief mascot was a crowd favorite would dance during half time show with the band Charlene was asked by children to take them to the basketball game had never seen him before When he came out daughter tried to become invisible and her son tried to laugh she was sad and just became angry Her children have been taught to respect the people who have the honor of wearing the attire that the mascot wore Best advice was to just be quiet get your degree and get out of there She was from a traditional community grew up learning traditional culture ceremony and religion Taught to respect eagle feathers dance chief and paint is sacred Children saw that what they had been taught was being mimiced for entertainment purposes Stood out for her kids Would hear about Catholic ceremonies or Jewish ceremonies being messed with but for some reason Indian ceremonies are not respected like those Having an Indian Chief as a mascot is a mockery National Indian Education Association first big thing to prevent this type of mockery May 19 2014 Desert of the Heart 1964 By Jane Rule Film Desert Hearts 1985 film adaptation by Donna Deitch Author of the book sent out to block prior representations Deitch First female to direct adaptation to black female novel Donna Deitch Also directed television film The Women of Brewster Place 1989 Jane Rule Desert of the Heart first novel published has written 12 books stopped in 1989 because she had severe arthritis lived in Canada with partner for 46 years Studied with Wallas Stegner She had a clear intention with her writing Desert of the Heart Reno Nevada Had to live there for 6 weeks in order to get a divorce something that we in contemporary times wouldnt understand because rules are different Deliberately wrote about a casino Ann being a Change Apron not called those today at Harold39s Club Desert of the Heart Set in Reno Nevada summer 1959 Characters in novel 0 Evelyn Hall professor at UC Berkley was married to husband George for 16 years he is a war veteran came to Reno to get a divorce 0 Ann Childs change apron and cartoonist father was a lawyer so she doesnot have money problems representation of one of the characters in same sex relationship one is a professor and one who is a manual laborer but Jane changes that because Ann is economically sufficient 0 France Packer runs boarding house where Evelyn comes to stay at was Ann39s father39s lover for 10 years 0 Walter Frances son 0 Silver change apron former madam of a house ran prostitutes and was about to marry joe and has sex with Ann she is pregnant joe is first man she had sex with pg 39 Joe is very small where the elevator shoes Joe profession writing pornographic novels Names are important first names A and E stand for Adam and Eve Gender expectation Frances who is not a wife and quotraisesquot Ann Evelyn was married but unhappy Desert of the Heart Affirmative lesbian love story reflection on the meaning of love and of being lesbian Contains resistance and subversion refutation of post war WWII effort toward ideal female whole ideal of postwar was when men were away females were working more and more when men came back women were displaced Evelyn discusses this when talking about what she did ideal female heterosexual monogomous reproduced and stayed home and had babies while men workedJane Rule is writing against this The Novel and Rules Reconstruction Dante39s Inferno violaters of God usurers money lenders dont do anything except earn interest and homosexuals sex is for purely pleasure not procreation From the Bible St Paul39s Epistle to the Romans Romans 1 2627 New Testament Homosexuality is vile Rule is deconstructing so she can reconstruct Reconstructing against received doctrine common sense Rule39s reconstruction challenges sexuality between two females traditional Christianity and psycho analytic theory through place in context Plato Greek Philosopher 400 years before Paul wrote Plato had criticized same sex lovemaking in the same language they are against God39s way of procreation Desert of the Heart The Desert historically a place of the damned and the sterile The desert and gambling Rule reconstructs the negative associations of homosexuals and usurers money lenders Desert of the Heart a state of being loveless without value and without purpose Rule Reconstructs Rule is also writing against literary texts Redclyffe Hall The Well of Loneliness 1928 according to some critics this novel marginalizes lesbains and condemns them to a quotdesolation of despanquot Rule is writing against pulp fiction these are formulaic cheap mass produced paperback novels that emphasize quotheterosexual recuperationquot people who were homosexual they were either recanted committed suicide or were killed Psycho analytic Theory that same sex relationships are a form of narcissism That women in same sex relationships are looking for an ideal mother 0 People in the novel continuously say that Evelyn and Ann look alike even though they are nothing alike in description Father slit Ann39s wrists when her mother left them Evelyn and husband have a hard time conceiving 0 Ann has the 5 wards children who live in other countries that you O O quotadoptquot by sending money to them The use of mirrors in the text 0 pg 38Ann and Bill in Silver39s bathroom and the ceiling of mirrors the two get more aroused by looking up at themselves having sex rather than looking at each other idea of being selfish 0 pg 22at the end of the novel Evelyn and Ann walks toward their reflections in the glass doors Significance of Rue39s Books Refuses to present lesbianism as a quotproblemquot Challenges histrical presence of silence and malice Rule39s Approach Reconstructs Text Seperates her texts from quothegemonic dominancequot about lesbians The Film Desert Hearts First Film about lesbain romance with happy ending Uses Hollywood conventions traditional filmmaking techniques of romance films Was box office success The music is important music rights were most expensive part of production Uses country and western love songs ironic commentary in film about same sex relationships Visual Pattern framewithinaframe technique confinement o constraint limits placed on lesbians Frame withinaframe technique that homosexual love constructed in dominant ideology within the frame of heterosexual mythology O O O June 2 2014 Jane Rule Counter and create new images Different things hit you differently She was bringing up all of the representations and banning them in the novel Film Showing in Class Homosexuality being talked about on tv People still feel the way the girl in the movie reacted she feels guilty dirty horrible etc towards being a homosexual back then it was something to be ashamed of some believe that people still feel that way today Many times when they tried to demonstrate gay people it had to do with suicidal individuals depressed individuals etc back in the day Being gay back in the day was worse than committing adultery For the longest time gay people never had leading roles in films Cant handle homosexuality because people cant imagine what gays do to one another if they do they imagine themelves doing it which they dont like Americans are more scared of Sexuality try to bury it Huge difference between women having sex with each other and between two men having sex People equate weakness to male sexuality towards another man Straight men can watch and not be threatened by womens homosexuality because they know that this is just a quotphasequot for women when the right guy comes along they will give it all up Philadelphia was about a gay hero who dies will hollywood ever embrace a film where the gay hero lives
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