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Animal Sci Week 4 (lectures 7 & 8)

by: Sheridan Lantz

Animal Sci Week 4 (lectures 7 & 8) 4569

Marketplace > Washington State University > 4569 > Animal Sci Week 4 lectures 7 8
Sheridan Lantz
GPA 3.89
Introductory Animal Science
Martin Maquivar

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About this Document

My notes are on lectures 7 & 8: Animal Genetics. These notes have everything from the lecture slides with side notes on what the professor went into detail about. I also added in definitions to som...
Introductory Animal Science
Martin Maquivar
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sheridan Lantz on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 4569 at Washington State University taught by Martin Maquivar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.


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Date Created: 02/06/15
Intro to Animal Genetics Lecture 7 Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA Transcription I Ribonucleic acid RNA Translation Protein or amino acid chain DNA ls composed of two strands of sugars nitrogen bases and a phosphate bond Purine bases 0 Adenine and Guanine Pyrimidines o Thymine and Cytosine Adenine goes with Thymine Guanine goes with Cytosine Nucleotide are attached to a sugar phosphate backbone These backbones form a double helix DNA strands run in opposite directions Lagginsuttand 5 gt 3 Deox dbose Phosphate Sugar Phosphate Sugar l I I Adeline Thyrni e Cytg ie 11 ll Thyinine Adelnine Gulanihe TAG Sugar Phosphate Sugar Phosphate Sugar Gene tic COde polyme a e 3 5 Lead Ing39strand 5 Genetic code TAG Transcription In RNA thymine T is Ribonucleic acid replaced by uracil U and the deoxyr39ibose is substituted by ribose AUF Uracil nvrimidine familv Genetic Material Diploid cells 2 copies of each type of chromosome 2N Produced by the fusion of2 gametes one from the female and one from the male A somatic cells in animals Examples of diploid cells Hepatocytes Neurons Enterocytes Haploid cells contain just 1 copy of the chromosomes 12 of the chromosomes of the species Spermatozoid Oocyte RED BLOOD CELLS No Nuclei NO DNA Karyotype Arrangement of chromosomes from largest to smallest Livestock karyotypes differ by the number size and morphology More then 2 chromosomes can cause a genetic defect Genetic Definitions Gene A short segment of a chromosome Genome The complete genetic material of an organism Locus Specific position of a gene within the chromosome Allele One of two or more alternatives forms of a gene occupying corresponding sites loci on homologous chromosomes Homologous chromosomes Chromosomes having the same size and shape occurring in pairs and affecting the same trait Inheritance The transfer of genecontaining chromosomes from parent to offspring Autosomes All chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes How do the cells make a protein When genes are expressed they are transcribed into RNA RNA is then translated into proteins Single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs or snips Type of genetic variation SNPs are single nucleotide substitutions of one base for another Example a SNP may replace the nucleotide adenine A with cytosine C or Guanine G or Thymine T in a certain stretch of DNA Locus is a location on a chromosome For example Gene A or gene B or gene C have a locus Loci is plural Homozygote vs Heterozygote An animal that has matchin alleles at a iven point in the chromosome or locus is said to be H One animal with different alleles is said to be Dominant gene action 0 Where the phenotype of the heterozygote is the same as one of the dominant homozygotes o Phenotype ofAA appears the same as Aa ifA is dominant Recessive gene action 0 The member of a gene pair that is only expressed when the dominant allele is absent from the animal s genome Partial dominance or codominance o The expression of the heterozygote is exactly halfway between the phenotype of the homozygotes Additive gene action 0 Occurs when the total phenotypic effect is the sum of the individual effects of the alleles Mitosis o The process of somatic cell division Meiosis 0 Cell division that occurs in gametes Spermatozoid Oocyte Gametogenesis 0 Development of the sex cells Reduction of the number of chromosomes by half of the total number of the species Genetics and Applications in Animal Science Lecture 8 Phenotype Genotype Environment All the observable The genetic make Complex of physical chemical characteristics of an up of an animal and biotic factors that act upon organism an organism Selection is the process that determines which individuals become parents Natural Selection 0 Based on the ability of the animal more suited more natural opportunity to be parent Artificial Selection 0 Is controlled by humans animal scientist veterinarians zoologist etc Management decisions allow certain animals more opportunity to mate and produce offspring Mating systems 0 Purebred breeding inbreeding o Inbreeding is the mating of closely related individuals 0 Increase homozygocity for desired traits o Decrease genetic variation 0 Detrimental recessive genes expression increases 0 Outbreeding 0 Process of mating less closely related individuals unrelated individuals from the same breed or different breed 0 Increase heterozygocity o Heterosis Superior animals compare to the average performance of the parents 0 Crossbreeding o Mating animals from different breeds Genetic traits and mating 0 Qualitative traits o Phenotypes can be classified into groups rather than numerical measures 0 Quantitative traits o Phenotype that are numerically measured and usually controlled by many genes 0 Positive assortative mating o Mating like animals 0 Negative assortative mating o Mating unlike animals Genetic trait 1 Genetic progress VVVVV V Accuracy of predicting the breeding value for an animal Selection intensity how choosy breeders are Genetic variation how much animals differ Generation interval average age of parents Heritability A measure of the proportion of the phenotypic variation that can be passed from parent to offspring Heterosis Superiority of an outbred individual relative to the average performance of the parent Factors that Affect Genetic Progress gt VVVV Accuracy of predicting the breeding value for an animal Reliability Selection intensity how choosy breeders are Genetic variation how much animals differ Generation interval average age of parents Genetic correlations The same or many of the same genes control two traits The value indicates the strength of the association between two traits Genetic correlations w Positive correlation No correlation Negative correlation a Genetic trait 2 Biotechnology and genetics Marker assisted technology 0 Selection for specific allelesgenes 0 Dairy and beef cattle swine 0 Can be done at birth by blood sample cheek swab or ear notch or hair sample Accuracy can vary over time and between breeds Increases selection intensity and decreases generation interval Increase genetic gain Marker assisted technology Monogenic Trait Trait is due to a single gene Simplest type of marker assisted selection If causative mutation is known then selection based on marker is 100 accurate Example is porcine stress syndrome 0 Due to a single nucleotide substitution in the RYR1 gene 0 Homozygous recessive Genetic diseases gt Impact on productivity gt Impact on health gt Impact on efficiency Anatomical and physiological impacts gt Congenital reproductive diseases 0 Cryptorchidism o Gonadal hypoplasia o Abnormal anatomy gt Congenital Metabolic diseases 0 Hemophilia o Albinism gt Congenital anatomical diseases 0 Hip dysplasia o Dwarfism o Amelia o Cleft palate Porcine Stress Syndrome 0 Symptoms Rapid respiration short and heavy breaths Increase in body temperature gt41 C 106 F Marked muscle tremors Twitching of the face The skin becomes red and blotched Sudden collapse or death 0 Poor meat quality pale soft and exudative meat 0 Symptoms may be triggered by stress Rough or unfamiliar handling Rough loading and unloading Transportation Mixing and fighting Mating estrus parturition Hot weather MDR1 Gene 0 Dr Mealey s work 0 lvermectin Sensitivity in Collies Reported in 1980 s Subsequently reported in other herding breed dogs White feet don t treat Mutations result in adverse reaction to drugs ABCB1 MDR1 Pharmacogenetics Clinical Perspective 0 Pharmacogenetic Testing Veterinary Dermatologists X Mange lvermectin Milbemycin Veterinary Oncologists X Chemotherapy Vincristine Doxorubicin Genetic Values assessments Beef cattle 0 EPD Expected progeny difference Provide a prediction of future progeny performance of one individual compared to another individual within a breed Dairy cattle 0 PTA Predicted transmitting ability 0 TPl Total performance index Practical approach Parentage 0 Lane 1 contains the markers from your bull Lane 2 contains the marker from the neighbor s bull Lane 3 contains the DNA from the calf Lane 6 is the DNA from the mother Lane 7 contains DNA size standards


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