Class Note for ANTHROP 301 with Professor Crews at OSU 02
Class Note for ANTHROP 301 with Professor Crews at OSU 02
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Hypoxia Heat Cold Modern Life November 17 2009 Levels of Adaptation 1 Re ex 7 breathing pull away from fire eye blinking 2 Accommodation 7 a When first encountered a mild stress bothers you b Eventually stress is ignored 7 get used to it c Heat noise smells 3 Acclimatization 7 a Short term responses to stressors i Change in physiology ii Body adjusts iii Hours 7 days 7 weeks iv Responses to hypoxia and cold b Long term responses to stressors i Same as short ii Increased blood ow and RBCs in hypoxic setting 4 Developmental Acclimatization 7 a During growth and development b Raised in stressful environment c Conception to completion of growth 5 Genetic adaptation 7 change in allele frequencies 6 Culture a Clothes re etc b Main Form of Adaptation way to adapt without a physiological change c Genetic adaptation is always our FINAL response Basal Metabolic Rate BMR Energy required to maintain basic physiological function while at rest BMR is the highest when you are young and growing BMR is higher in winter than in spring Body Proportions Physi010gy anatomy and body proportions are related to heat and cold tress B0dy proportions vary clinally in humans and animals in relation to environmental temperatures Bergmann s Rule B0dy mass increases with decreasing temperature thus reducing the surface to volume ratio and conserving heat 1 2 mass i mass a su acu ma s su aoe area 2A nunn Innmun s sumca Iranmu 3 Inusiraunn niEemmann s Rule from mm 1 sum Allen s Rule Body extremities decrease With deceasing temperatures further reducing the surface to volume ratio and conserving heat Lap arctic From le to right 7 Heat loss increases Body Size and Environments ln cold environments animals have squat round bodies With short extremities ln warm environments animals have long cylindrical bodies With long extremities Even pygmies have this body form Surface area of the body increases as the square volume increases as the cube Sitting height ways to measure Eliminates leg length Measures heatproducing body core Greater in cold environments short squat bodies have a shorter leg length more total body in torso Body measuremean of military recruits compared from the North and South Conf1rmed Bergmann s and Allen s rules Demonstrated developmental responses to environment rather than genetic Pigs in Minnesota Half liter outside in cold weather Other half inside warm Outside fatter and shorter legs lnside leaner and longer legs Pigs in cold more fat and bigger hams Ridding the Body of Heat reducing core temperature 1 Radiation a Give off body heat to another object in line of sight b Not touching c Bodies naturally radiate heat 2 Evaporation a Excess body heat converts to liquid sweat to gas b Releases latent heat of vaporization 3 Convection a Transfers heat to something moving b Air breeze or a fan or to moving water c Blood moves heat from region to region by convection 4 Conduction a Transfer heat to objects that are touching b Sitting against a cold wall c Heat moves from inside to outside body by conduction Sweat is the major means of human thermoregulation works poorly in a humid environment Can lose 2 liters of water per hour under hot conditions Humans insensitive to water and electrolyte loss Def1cit made up at night and during sleep Hydromeiosis 7 back pressure on sweat glands from sweat not evaporating from skin Stops your production of sweat Occurs in hothumid environment Responses to Cold maintaining the core temperature 1 Shivering a Muscle contractions generate heat 2 Goose Bumps a Contracting erector pili muscles of hair follicles b Constricting the skin c Retains heat 3 Lewis Waves a Reduce heat loss by convection 4 Cultural a Without culture without shelter without fire etc humans not well accepted to living in cold environments Thermal Stress Response 7 Heat 1 Detection a Cognitive Response b People lt 60 years old can detect a temperature change of 1 C c People gt70 years old can detect a temperature change of 23 7 25C 2 Peripheral dilation a Blood ows to capillaries at skin surface allowing heat exchange to environment 3 Cardiovascular activity a Increased heart activity delivers more bloodheat to extremities i Related to deaths of very young and old in hot weather 4 Sweat and evaporative cooling a Number of sweat glands varies from person to person and population to population of sweat glands working at any time also varies c Heat adapted persons produce thinner sweat little water few electrolytes and have reduced heart rates d Thinner blood due to more liquid in blood Adaptations to Hot Environments Thin torsos long extremities larger surface to volume ratio Enhanced heat loss by radiation evaporation and convection Adaptations to Cold Environments Rounder torsos Shorter extremities Lower surface to volume ratio Vasoconstriction 7 decreased blood ow to extremities and skin Lewis Waves Increased BMR Higher amounts of brown fat 7 generates more heat Heat and Cold Adaptation Women not best subjects for heat stress studies Often anemic due to menstrual cycle Body temperatures uctuate during menstrual cycle Have higher heat conservation due to more body fat Natural Experiment Set of circumstances in natural environment that closely mimic controlled laboratory experiment Best in small groups with same cultural background Best with simple socioeconomic structure and technology Complex groups with modern technology alter the environment 7 difficult to interpret Ecological model for studying human variation Cannot ethically experiment on people or tell them who to breed with F ind a group living with a stressor and compare them to a similar group without the stressor high altitude vs low altitude Find a stressor and try to determine how it affects variability in one population Natural Experiments Related to High Altitude vaoxia l HAN7 High Altitude Natives sedantes haven t migrated vs HAN who have migrated to lowlands 2 LAN 7 Low Altitude Natives sedantes vs LAN migrants to the highlands 3 Nonnative Europeans who settled in both highlands and lowlands Other Natural Experiments 1 People who settled in a malarial environment a Sickle cell anemia and hemoglobin C disease 2 People in the New guinea highlands with and without Kuru a prion disease 3 People on Guam 50 die of ALS Lou Gering Disease a ALS related to high Al Cr and Mg diets b Heavy metals deposited in brain Vocabula Stressor anything that takes body out of homeostasis u Homeostasis maintenance of body at a dynamic equilibrium Attempt by the body to maintain a steady state via feedback mechanisms Hypoxia low oxygen content or availability Common at high altitudes high altitude gt8000 feet Before modern technology no way to alleviate hypoxia Leadville CO is the highest residential community in the US Allostasis and Allostatic Load Body s response to stressors promote physiological responses 7 allostasis Continual responses to stressors over time has somatic costs 9 allostatic load AL Allostasis body has different set points every minute hour month year examples range of pH compatible with life is narrow 7 range of body temperature broad People Living at High Altitudes 1 Rocky Mountains 7 Occupied since 30000 BP 2 Andes Mountains 7 Occupied since 30000 BP 3 Himalayan Mountains amp Tibetan Plateau 7 Occupied since 500000 BP 4 Ethiopian Highlands 7 Occupied since 800000 BP Stressors at High Altitude l Hypoxia 7 12 the partial pressure of oxygen at sea level Cold Poor nutrition base High UV radiation less atmosphere to block Dry environment Difficult terrain a Have to move up and down 9959 Adaptations to High Altitudes l Andes a Barrelshaped chest b Bigger lungs allow for greater oxygen uptake and saturation 2 Himalayas a Genetic adaptation mutation or founder s effect b RBCs have greater affinity of oxygen Responses to Hypoxia l Re exes a Increase in breathing rate b Decrease in activity rate c Slow down due to lack of oxygen 2 Short Term Acclimatization a Increased production of RBCs 7 increases hematocrit thick solids in blood b Increased ability to transport oxygen c Increased blood plasma 3 Long Term Acclimatization Further increase in RBCs Increase in capillary system especially around muscles Increase in mitochondria in body cells especially muscle cells Young person increases ability to carry oxygen increases blood thickness Old person increased plasma thins the blood therefore under more stress i Thicker blood more susceptible to heart attack rug99 s BarrelChest Both genetic and environmental causes 1 HAN born at high altitude with grandparents there have maximum barrelchest 2 HAN born at low altitude have less of a barrelchest 3 LAN born at low altitude with LAN grandparents have normal chest 4 LAN born at high altitude have a somewhat barrelchest environmental component 5 If born of European migrants at high altitude have a very slight barrelchest Genetic predisposition developmental acclimatization and environmental in uences Migration From Low to High Altitude Chronological age is inversely correlated with maximum ability to consume oxygen Aerobic capacity Total lung capacity Barrelchest increase with time and exposure to high altitude hypoxia The younger one arrives at a high altitude the better aerobic capacity they will develop Aerobic Capacity at High Altitudes 25 is due to developmental changes 25 is due to genetics 50 due to environment 46 months in advance Other Adaptations to Hypoxia A proxy for genetics is skin color differences at low and high altitudes In Nepal a genetic basis for RBCs carrying more oxygen Reduced in hematocrit 48 of blood is hematocrit in Nepal 30 to 35 here Whereas 522 hematocrit in the Andes Other Human Stressors 1 Nutrition Temperature hot cold Pollution Environmental toxinsheavy metals Radiation Infectious genetic diseases Other people Culture 90899 9 Variation in Human Disease Patterns November 19 2009 Infectious Diseases Affected by Genes Environment Culture Va Across Groups of People SeX age socioeconomic status nutrition behaviors ethnicity geography climate genetics multifactorial interactions among causes Infectious Diseases Measles Fenner Culture change and population size Population of 300000 needed to maintain Provides 40005000 new casesyear Measles is a disease of modern civilization Viral infection 7 10 days 7 contagiousimmune Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Airbome spores survive in environment Remain infectious for long periods Very young and old most susceptible Survive TB decades 7 large population not needed Infectious Diseases Worms Parasitic worms survive long without host symptoms Lymphatic filariasis Humans have genetic defenses 7 HLA haplotypes Enter body through oralfecal exposure Found in human corpolites May encapsulate in muscles as dormant cysts for decades Cyclical transmission from pigs to humans in some cultures Generation Def1ned as about 20 years today Length of time from a woman s birth to birth of her middle daughter Women determine generation length May have many children in their lifetime Men not aware of which children they sire Infectious Diseases today claimed 25 years ago 7 infectious diseases defeated by antibiotics 20 years ago 7multidrug resistant forms TB Venereal diseases Staphylococcal and streptococcal diseases MRSA HIV and ebola Viruses emerged from hot wet tropics PreViously likely controlled by local ecological relationships PreVious ecological relationships disrupted Began attacking humans as new host Fenner s Research Certain diseases need athreshold human population for maintenance DiVided cultures and populations into disease periods Each experienced a different spectrum of diseases Hunting and gathering 7 wormsbacterial Slash and burn agriculture 7 parasite Agriculture 7 dietary deficiencies Irrigated cities 7 infectious Viruses waterborne Industrial cities 7 human madepollution and wastes Introduction of sanitary reforms 7 chronic Measles needs 45000 cases per year to be endemic Hence idea population size for measles 300000 TB long term chronic airbome illness hence needs smaller population Typhoid also needs a small population Parasitic infections needs exposure to excrement occurred in settled population Missing Nutrients Vitamin A Beta carotene 7 arctic Vitamin D 7 dark crowded early industrial revolution 7 London Paris Vitamin C Scurvy 7 British Niacin corn niacin deficiency 7 pellagra Americas Folate spinal bifida Calcium osteoporosis Iron red meat Selenium rashes psoriasis comes from crops in high selenium soil linked to osteoporosis in African American women Stresses in modern world Traffic smoke air pollution Pace of life Water pollution Bovine growth hormones estrogen progesterone caffeine etc Leach into the water EG Male sh around some factories in London developed female coloring and internal organs Low sperm count in males today attributed to estrogen pollution in water Secular trends in humans Height Menarche Age appears to be decreasing in westemized populations from 1617 years to 11 12 years More proteinfat in diet More hormones in food Chronic adult degenerative diseases Senescence Epiphen0mena of reproduction After attaining maximal reproductive potential Characteristic of modern society Increasing organismal complexity immune and endocrine system culture etc senescence becomes an inherited property of system Reserve capacity of organs diminishes with age wear and tear and degeneration Reserve capacity used by the age of 50 determines length of life after 50 Aging Evolutionary model Ger0nt010gy scientific study of senescence and problems related to aging Senescence biological process leading to increased susceptibility to internal and external stresses leading to increased risk of death Ge139iat139ics medical field dealing with care of elders Ecological relationships Animal populations under stress seek new mates Lions and tigers mate produce ligers and tigons All baboon species seem capable of interbreeding Common and pygmy chimpanzees interbreed Population size and processes in Human evolution Mortality 7 people die 7 deaths Fertility 7 people are born 7 births Population change deaths 7 births New population pop deaths 7 births Rate of natural increase in population r births 7 deathspopulation r Life table 7 model of population based upon mortality rates by age Rate events population at risk for the event over a speci c time Ratio rate 1 rate 2 unitless Malthus An essay on the principles ofpopulation 1798 If unchecked increases at a geometric rate ie 2 4 8 16 whereas the food supply grows at an arithmetic rate Pt por t Malthus Predictions Subsistence severely limits population level When the means of subsistence increases population increases Population pressures stimulate increases in productivity Increases in productivity stimulate further population growth Since this productivity cannot keep up with the potential of population growth for long population requires strong checks to keep it in line with carryingcapacity Individual costbene t decisions regarding sex work and children determine the expansion or contraction of population and production Checks will come into operation as population exceeds subsistence level The nature of these checks will have signi cant effect on the rest of the sociocultural system 7 Malthus points speci cally to misery vice and poverty Ecological fallacy assumes that because 2 variables covary across populations they are causally related Example Cardiovascular disease today cultural phenomena associated with low caloric intake during gestation due to world war and depression Example of intrauterine fetal programming Epidemiological transition 3 stages 1 High infectious mortality short life expectancy 2 Declining infectious mortality increasing life expectancies 3 High chronic disease mortality high life expectancy Demographic transition 7 3 stages 1 High mortality all ageshigh birth rateslots of kids 2 declining mortality at all ages declining birth rates still lots of kids 3 Low mortalitymost deaths after reproductive ageslow birth ratesstable populations Life Table systematic way of illustrating the demography of a population usually by age or sex based on current mortality in a population everything is equated to a population of 100000 original population is the cohort size radix Sociobiology 112409 The study of modern human variation and how genes affect behavior Nature vs nurture debate 7 cannot truly be separated environment beings in the womb EO Wilson systematic study of the biological basis of human social behavior Premise Social cultural systems came into being to improve enhance reproductive success of individuals in that system Basic idea is that social systems evolve because of ongoing interactions among and between individuals there is a biological basis for some aspects of social behavior Female choice malemale competition altruism etc It is extreme to say that all sociocultural behaviors are hardwired by genes How do behaviors in uence evolution Behavior form of adaptation Behaviors may act as Reproductive Isolating mechanism between populationsspecies Behavior may alter the form of an organ 7 thereby directing its biological evolution easy to see in animals what about humans Humans do not mate randomly Culture often determines who is a desirable or permissible mate Culture system of learned behaviors that are shared among members of a group and passed on to the next generation by teaching Female choice Sexual selection Incest taboos Malemale competition Hidden estrus in females pregnant Infanticide Social Strategies acted on by NS Altruism behavior that lowers individual fitness but raises fitness of another andor overall fitness of a population Ultimate selfsacrifice for the team Lowers individual fitness iraises inclusiveness Not to be confused with parental investment PI Not group selection Selfishness Individual raises own tness at other s expense Raises tness of ego lowers tness of group Selects against others and not against ego Long Term NS might favor some altruism since it bene ts the greatest of people Reciprocal altruism tit for tat perform an altruistic act today expecting that to receive an altruistic act now or later Only strategy that does not allow cheaters evolutionary stable strategy ESS Applications widespread existence of purposeful behaviors in animal world indicates a link to NS Primates are highly social as are humans Altruism could be based on natural selection which focuses on competition Dif cult to imagine how it could give rise to an instinct that leas one organism to sacri ce itself for another Reciprocal altruism Cost to you bene t to someone else 9 bene t to you cost to someone else Sel shness bene t to you cost to someone else Spite Cost to you cost to someone else WC WynneEdwards suggested group selection however sociobiologists saw no empirical support Even when genuinely altruistic behavior occurs eg a warning cry could be individual selection anyone could be cheating nonreciprocal Kin Selection Favor relativeskin over others Related by descent Improve their tness since they carry genes identicalbydescent Individuals invest more in relatives than nonrelatives To the degree they are related to you bene t to siblingsinvesting in own genes maximize individual representation in next generation improve reproductive success cultural phenomenon e g cross cousin marriage parallel mating if wife dies marry her sister All of this leads to inclusive tness IF total contribution of genes through offspring and other relatives all of the alleles identical by descent passed on to next generation but devalued by own contribution to relative s total tness Hamilton de ned Total Fitness RS IF All alleles identical to you by descent that are passed on to the next generation Consanguinity biological term for mating with relatives Inbreeding offspring share alleles identicalby descent Incest a sociocultural term 7 de ned differently in different social settings Since people are usually in close contact with kin it pays to be altruistic and sel sh with them They are partially related to you Self interest arises when we are both sel sh and altruistic at the same time Studies of HYMENOPTERAN insects By EO Wilson in his book Sociobiology Males are haploid drones and all females worker or queen are diploid Queens being the only maternal contributor are equally related to both the drones and the workers the queen s best interest is to invest equally in both brother male and female offspring the workers have an interest in investing twice as much in sisters as brother sex ratio of Hymenoptera the queen produces 55 the workers selectively neglect the haploids ends up being more diploids in the next generation about 21 easy to show competition in insects humans are more complex nepotism in humans primate relatives have multimale consorting by females may be an attempt by females to confuse paternity prevent male infanticide of the infants primates tend to be matrilocalmatrilineal John Maynard Smith s Game Theory Sel sh acts 7 e g cuckoo birds cuckoo birds lay eggs in another s nest ends up raising the coocoo s offspring wo a cost to the offspring or parent ZeroSum game Also called prisoner s dilemma In real social situations the question is whether or not you will have to interact with the individual again in the future evolutionary stable strategy ESS strategy between individuals that over time results in the best outcome for majority of individuals ESS Most genetic success in the end will be titfortat always be altruistic until something bad happens then change strategy reciprocal altruism social relationship social systems could be in uenced and genetically based in biology best strategy of partnership Competition for scarce resources Different levels of investment that females and males put into the growth and development of offspring reproductive behavior is different so that each can maximize their genetic contribution to later generations rewards are different so behaviors are different E O Wilson female choice high energy in reproduction must make a careful choice about the most fit male chooses males best on quality Malemale competition low energy investment in growth and development of offspring invest in copulation to improve reproductive success quantity invest little in offspring bc do not really know own offspring Parental Investment Low in many mammalian offspring High in gibbons monkeys and humans absolutely essential for success Homosexuality Do not reproduce but may invest in people carrying their genes auntinguncling behavior societies with crosscousin mating males do not know that females offspring are related to them if sister then at least 1A related to them Evolution amp Human Variation in the Modern World December 1 2009 Infectious Disease Infectious Diseases Caused by pathogenic microorganisms Diseases can be spread directly or indirectly What type of information do infectious diseases tell a human biologist QQ Centu 7 Infectious diseases Sequence of childhood diseases Rubella German measles Birth Defects Childhood disease Rubeola measles MMR vaccinated against Contagious spread easily Contact with ENT of infected Scarlet fever Severe childhood disease Caused by a group of bacteria also causes strep Roseola Acute disease high fever rash Fifth disease Information Artic populations lack Vitamin A Industrial cities lack Vitamin D Oldtime sailors lacked Vitamin C Rice diet lacks thiamin Brown rice does contain thiamin Traditional huntergatherer societieshave not had endemics of measles or other infectious diseases What about now HlNl What else contributes to one s diet Liquid Why would liquid be an important component to one s diet Water essential nutrient consumed from exogenous sources to satisfy metabolic demand Humans may have first settled down in one place to brew beer connected to development of cereal agriculture Beer was an important food source why Contains grain proteins and vitamins Takes 4 months to brew beer Also takes time to ferment wine Metabolism Set of chemical reactions that occur in living organism to maintain life Metabolism Syndrome Combination of medical disorders Result increased risk of Cardiovascular Disease amp diabetes The Metabolic Syndrome Combines a number of agerelated factors into a syndrome obesity Insulin resistance Hyperinsulinemia atherosclerosis Metabolic dysregulation can result in Increases in Leptin and TNFalpha Hypertension Death can occur from Diabetes Myocardial infarcation Heart attack Body Habitus Constitutional somatic dispositions and tendencies that predispose to illnesses and chronic degenerative conditions CDCs Aspects of body shape size or proportion associated with diseaseearly mortality BMIbody mass index 7 poorly associated with fatness Adiposity and subcutaneous fat deposits Somatotypes Relative fat pattern indices Body Habitus Risllts for high BMI and obesity 9 common and varied Hyperinsulinemia and insulin mutations Hyperglycemia Hyperlipidemia leptin levels and mutations High calorie fat protein CHO diets Number of adipocytes Gene gene and geneenvironment interactions Metabolic efficiency Low calorieslow fat stores gt 85 high calories sufficient fat stores lt50 Cardiovascular Disease CVD Death from CVD increased after WW1 and WWII Now decreasing worldwide Every year of survival after age 20 7BP raises about 20 to 25 mmHg 40 year old has a 56 mmHg higher BP than a 20 year old in the US Mortality Trends in the US First two are infectious diseases IDs Reduced in modern settings last two are chronic degenerative diseases CDDs Increased in modern settings Diabetes is metabolic disease Today part of metabolic syndrome Mortality Transitions Total cancer mortality currently is rising Why Rate has not changed substantially Infectious disease mortality is decreasing CVD disease mortality is decreasing Public health measuresculture reduce deaths caused by IDs Atkins Diet low carbohydrates leads to ketosis Ketones 7 byproducts of fatty acid metabolism Low carbohydrates 7 ketones build up Increase risk of gall stones by 20 By following this diet one places themselves in a state of low ketoacidosis Maintaining the Soma Homeostasis Body s attempt to maintain a steady state within its metabolic milieu defined as a dynamic equilibrium older concept of setpoints and return to baseline Stressor Anything that pushes soma out of homeostasis can be environmental Allostasis Body s constant metabolic response to stressors that alters physiological set points Allostasis Physiological range of somatic responses Rather than set points body responds to environmental stressors with constant change Different set points advantageous at different times Sleepawake activenonactive Blood pressure mode 24hr pattern of highs and lows as environmental response Normal Allostatic Response Initiated by a stressor Sustained for an appropriate interval tumed off Allostatic Load can not halt all ill effects of stress on soma responses to stress may themselves harm soma may be detrimental to longterm health but promote short term survival cortisone stress response hormone damages cells measure of somatic stress high bp damages heart and arteries Evolutionary Pressures in Modern Settings Other people 7 war homicide political systems sociocultural systems Environment 7 pollution toxic chemicals radiation parasites infections Life Style 7 surfeit of calories fat protein exerciselack thereof smoking alcohol etc
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