Class Note for ART 690 at OSU 02
Class Note for ART 690 at OSU 02
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Date Created: 02/06/15
History of Art 69002 Winter 2006 The PreBuddhist amp Buddhist Art of Korea John C Huntington Professor Lecture 11 Buddhist Doctrinal Developments in Late Silla and Unified Silla Buddhist Doctrinal Developments The 7th 9th centuries in Silla saw a great deal of doctrinal discussion debate and even acrimony over nuances of the doctrine Scholastic treatises were published by various teachers While the art historian has little need to delve into these a great length How many angels can dance on the head of a pin is the same question as How many gods can fit in Vimalakirti s 10 foot square hut the answer is all of them Yet in order to understand the art in context a little background will not hurt too much The basic question is What is reality In Indic Buddhist thinking there are three answers Buddhist Doctrinal Developments 1 Sravakayana In the Agarnic period Both thought and objects are real 2 Mahayana In the Prajnaparamita sutra period Both thoughts and objects are unreal abhava 3 Yogachara In the Sandhinirmochana Sutra period Thought is real Vij avada and objects are unreal Buddhist Doctrinal Developments Wonhyo 617 686 stands at the pinnacle of Korean intellectual history as a thinker embodying the particular characteristics of Korean Buddhist thought Warning against doctrinal rigidity as well as the aristocratic monopoly on Buddhism he attempted to create a practical Buddhism that was oriented towards the common people At the same time his work to systemize and integrate Buddhism39s diverse doctrines became a model for critical Buddhist research As a part of his effort to bring together all Buddhism39s profound doctrines he emphasized the teaching that all phenomena are merely products of the mind According to Wonhyo if one could merely awaken to the fact that all phenomena are produced from the mind all doctrinal disputes would become meaningless For this reason he felt that doctrine and disputes were less important than the ideal of practice contained within them Wonhyo therefore emphasized the quotharmonization of disputesquot meaning that one could only approach truth by putting a stop to conflict In this way he demonstrated an intellectual attitude which sought to harmonize strict adherence to doctrine with a practical orientation http www asianinfo orgasianinfokorearelbuddhismhtm Buddhist Doctrinal Developments However Wonhyo came up with the notion of the two teachings 1 Public teaching 2 Concealed Teaching In the former the the ideas of the Mahayana Shradda upada Shastra explanation of the basis of faith in Mahayana such as the chain of causation were taught In the latter which contained the public as well he Yogacharabhumi and the teaching of the Alayavijnana storehouse of consciousness were emphasized Thus according to Wonhyo the teaching was unified but only in the concealed teaching Buddhist Doctrinal Developments Eisang 62 5 702 firmly established the Hwaom Chinese quotHuayenquot ideal of a quotBuddha landquot in order to create solid foundations for the Unified Shilla Kingdom According to Hwaom doctrine all things have their place within the harmony of the universal order If one awakens to this order anguish and contentions instantly disappear and the world is seen as full of harmony and peace The Buddha triad that represents the blessed Hwaom realm are enshrined within the main hall of Buddhist temples Taeil Yorae Skt Mahavairocana sits in the center as the symbol of the sun and light Kwanum Posal Skt Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva sits on the right as the representation of compassion and M unsu Posal Skt Manjusri Bodhisattva sits on the left as the symbol of wisdom Due to Eisang39s teachings all of Korean came to be thought of as a Buddha land and various areas came to be thought of as sacred places in which Kwanum or Munsu Posal resided In this way Eisang enlisted Hwaom thought with its optimistic and comprehensive character to establish organized Buddhism and provide a new vision for the integrated society of Unified Shilla Even today his teachings concerning Kwanum Posal continue to have an important influence on Buddhist practice httpwwwasianinfoorgasianinfokorearelbuddhismhtm Buddhist Doctrinal Developments Whlle medltatlhg lrl a cave on the east coast of Korea Elsang has a men of Avalokltesvara and later a temple the Naksarrsa Potolaka temple was founded there lt IS stlll the hatlorlal shrlhe to Avaloklteshvara a e a a Buddhist Doctrinal Developments Naksan sa mug 4153 mm 213 Buddhist Doctrinal Developments Naksanesa quotOld Bell Buddhist Doctrinal Developments Naksanesa ZOth century Kwanum Buddhist Doctrinal Developments Naksanesa Inlenor of mam temple Buddhist Doctrinal Developments Wonchuk 613696 went to China at 15 and remained there his entire life In his thinking both the Vij aptimatra mind only and the Hua yen Ayatamsaka and the Tien tai of Chi I were combined into a unifiedwhole of ekayana one way and the theory of one sound of the Buddha s teachings While this was not unique to Wonchuk in the Silla period it was the position of several Silla monks all of his work took place in China where he had become master of the Ximing school and his works were in Chinese were influential throughout east Asia including Tibet Buddhist Doctrinal Developments Temples in the capital city including the Bulguksa and the Sokkuram were centers of doctrinal Buddhism including the study of the Avatamsaka and Lotus Sutras and devotion to the Buddha Amitabha and Avalokitesvara the Bodhisattva of Compassion They received extensive support from the royal family and the aristocracy However during the latter part of the Uni ed Silla period Son Chan Buddhism was introduced to Korea from China and new centers of Buddhism began to emerge Son Buddhism rejected doctrinal Buddhism with its focus on the sutras and its centralized control by the royal family Instead meditation and the direct experience of insight were cultivated Eventually nine different meditational schools emerged away from the capital known as the Nine Mountains of Son Among these was the Borimsa temple in what is now Cholla Province Esoteric Buddhism There is literary evidence of the existence of exoteric Buddhism in Silla as early as the 6th century This is noticeably before the arrival of the Indian Monk Subhakarashima 636732 who arrived in China in 716 Three monks are noted in the Samyuk Kusa Milbon Hyetong and Myongnang who preformed curing according th the Bhaishajyaguru sutra and protective rituals using a mandala of the ve Buddhas Monasteries were built the Wonwonsa and Temple of the Four Great Kings However I have not been able to trace either them or their remains as of yet Orthodox esoteric Buddhism began in China in the rst half of the 8th century and was introduced by Pulgasaui between 720 and 736 To be continued Sigh Son Buddhism The teaching of 39Z i 39 C le Chan Buddhism was introduced in Korea for the first time in 630 by the monk Pomnang disciple of the IV Patriarch Tao Shin 579651 and master of Sinhaeng It was his fourth successor Tohon 84282 who founded in 850 the monastery of HiyangsanThe second introduction was given by the monk Toui died in 825 who learned the doctrine quotoutside of the scripturesquot from Hsitang from the lineage of the great HuiNeng 638713 considered the VI Patriarch of the school of the southHis successor Ch39ejung founded in 862 the monastery of Kajisan Borimsa The historical nine sects of the mountain were then formed eight of which descended from MaTsu and one from Tungshan of the line of Shih Tou 700790 Son Buddhism The Kaji san or Borimsa founded by Ch39ejung Pojorsonsa in 862 Borim sa Temple situated at the southern foot of Mt Kajisan was founded by the Zen Master Pojosonsa during the reign of King Kyongdok wang of the Shilla Kingdom It is one of the three Zen Buddhist temples having same name quotBorimsaquot also situated in same name quotMt Kajisanquot and two others are in India and China There were many national treasures in the temple but most structures housing them burned down during the Korean War 19501953 The Taeung pojon Hall quotGreat enlightenmentquot was restored not long ago httpparandeulcokrlborimsahtm Son Buddhi The Kaji san or Borim sm sa founded by Ch v b n u an Pojo sonsa in 862 Son Buddhism doctrinal temples which were provided with ample funds to create Buddha figures 39 the expensive method of bronzecasting or sculpting in monumental stone Buddhist estal shments in the more provincial regio such as Borim sa did not have similar resources There and in other regional centers the less expensive method of castin in iron was developed for making large Buddha image The Borimsa Temple 39 on figure of Vairocana 1s an important example An inscription on the upper left arm of the figure reveals that it was cast in 859 CE through the efforts of Kim Suchong the A 39 tant Magistrate of Changsa in Muju presentday Cholla province Son Buddhism Vairocana Detail of previous Son Buddhism 7 in p Vairocana Inscription 39 a 1 This Buddha is made in the third year 859 of the present monarch King Honan r 857 861 1808 years after Shakyamuni V quot entered into m39rwzmz On the 17th day of the seventh month in mum year of the twelfth year of Dazhong 858 Kim Su Chong L 7 1 H i the Assistant Magistrate of Changsa in Muju petitioned the V present monarch to allow him to make a Buddha image The King decreed on the 22nd day of the eighth month to permit it Kim bows and vows that he will not spare any eFFort Son Buddhism Development of the Korean Son schools new epoch in Korean Buddhism begins during the latter Silla with the birth of schools of Son in Korea On the Chinese mainland the movement toward a meditation based View of practice which came to be known as on 39an E meaning quotmeditationquot widely known in the West through its Japanese variant zen had begun during the sixth and seventh centuries Since Koreans were in continuous close contact with developments in Chinese Buddhism it was not long before the in uence of the new meditational school reached Korea where it was known as Son It is from this time that a bipolar tension begins to exist between the upstart meditational schools and the previously existent academically oriented schools labeled together under the rubric of kyo meaning quotlearningquot or quotstudyquot The earliest Korean seekers of the Ch an dharma began to travel to China as early as the seventh century but the major part of the activity occurred during the 8 9th centuries The teacher traditionally accredited with the initial transmission of Ch an Son into Korea is Pomnang ll 632646 said to be a student of the Chinese master Taohsin GE 1 580 651 Son was popularized by Sinhaeng Wii704779 in the latter part of the eighth century and by Tao hsin 33 d 825 at the beginning ofthe ninth century Son Buddhism From this time large numbers of Koreans most of whom were originally students of Hwaom and or Consciousness only doctrine began to study Ch39an in the mainland Returning to Korea they together with their leading disciples established their own schools at various mountain monasteries The number of these schools during the early Koryo was set at nine and thus Korean Son during the Koryo would be termed the quotnine mountains kusan j LIJJ school The predominant in uence that was brought back to Korea in terms of the style of Chinese Ch39an was that of the lineage of Matsu Taoi 709788 as eight of the nine lineages that were established were through connection with either Matsu or one of his eminent disciples The one exception was the Sumi san school BEE founded by Tom 869936 which had developed from the Ts39aot39ung E551 lineage Son Buddhism The one exception was the Sunii san school ZEFJER founded by HE 07 869936 which had developed from the Ts39ao t39ung E551 lineage The other quoteight mountainsquot schools established during this period were 1 the Kaji san school EEUJ established at Porirn sa El11 North Korea on the west coast west of Ponyang under the influence of Toui 33 d 825 and his grand student Ch39ejing 85 804 890 Toui studied in China under Chih tsang EH 735 814 and Pai chang E1 749 814 2 The Songju san EEUJ school established by Muyorn 5 800888 who received his inga frorn Ma ku Paoch39e i gl b 720 3 The Silsang san El l school founded by Hongch oki 0l fl 830 who also studied under Chih tsang 4 The Huyang san Elli ID school founded by Ponang and Chison Tohon EOEE 824 882 who was taught by a Korean teacher ofthe Matsu transmission Son Buddhism 5 The Pongnirn san JEWEL school established by Wongarn Hyon uk 50 787 869 and his student Sirnhui 1 9c Hyon uk was a student of Changching Huaihui EETEEHE 748 835 6 The Tongni san WHEN school established by Hyech oi 13k 785 861 who was a student of Chihtsang 7 The Sagul san E IWEIJJ school established by Pornil if El 810 889 who studied in China with Yen kuan Ch39i an EEE39 750 842 and Yueh shan Wei yen u IVE 8 The Saja san l i lil school established by Toyun 5570 797 868 who studied under Nan chon P u y an 748 835
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