Class Note for POLITSC 101 at OSU 02
Class Note for POLITSC 101 at OSU 02
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IeS ical Part39 Poli Introduction Another linkage institutio 0 Note this lecture will refer to Congress and the presidency References will be general since we haven t covered those topics yet 0 Book does a good job talking about parties 0 I have a different view that you may find more intuitive 0 And I think it reflects reality well Where do parties from 0 Parties come from political divisions 0 The first parties developed from the schism over the question of How shm we design our systent 0 Federalists and Antifederalists laid the foundations for the 1st Party System Folks were pitted on one side pro ratification or the other antiratification The sides organized and fought for their ideal government POOF we had two political parties Where do parties from 0 Winners of these political bat Ies ge to define the system 0 Federalists wanted a strong central government amp a subordinate role for the states 0 The Antifederalists soon to become the Jeffersonians wanted a weak central government amp strong states rights The Federalists won the ratification fight amp structured the rules of our political process REMEMBER rules are not neutral Winning means ou make rules that bene t your interes s Where do parties from 0 In a democratic system crea ing a political party is a practical amp obvious method for pursuing your political faith or ideology 0 Political parties are so embedded in our system these days that we see them without necessarily knowing what makes a political party 0 Which animal goes with which party 0 Democrats 0 Republicans What is a political party 0 There are many ways to define or thi about political parties 0 What is your definition Take a few moments to write down your definition Imagine that you are hosting a foreign exchange student from Mars where they don t have political parties How would you explain this institution What is a political party 0 Political scientists have com a varlety of definitions as well Do any of these match yours 0 a body of men limited for promoting theirjoint endeavors the national interest upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed Edmund Burke 0 a social group a system of meaningful and patterned activity within a larger society individuals populate specific roles behaving as memberactors within an identified social unit Eldersveld 0 a group organized to gain control of government in the name of the group by winning public officequot Schlesinger What is a political party What do you think of thes definitions 0 Do they leave anything out 0 Is everything you associate with political parties captured by these definitions Let s think about these definitions a bit more What is a political party 0 The 1st amp 2MI definition 0 Focuses on the organization of tha group 0 The activity involved doesn t matter 0 The last definition 0 Focuses on the electoral role or function 0 Only activity matters 7 And only 1 activity matters getting people into office 0 Ignores the structure of the party What is a political party 0 So what is missing 0 Does just anyone get elected 0 How would you describe the DC crowd 0 So who makes up the party a The Elite and their supporting cast The person running for of ce and their supporters What is a political party But who elects the Dc crowd 0 Are the voters part of the party 0 Are they part of the same party as the person elected or her supporters that worked for her election 0 Or do all three types of people voters office seekers and party workers occupy different roles in the party What is a political party 0 Putting it all together The best way to think about political parties in the US is not as a social group or an organization centered around an office seeke Think of it as a 3 headed monster If we do we can see how the term party is associated with many different types of people amp activities 0 This de nition distinguishes a campaign manager from a person with a sign on their lawn This definition also helps because we must remember that not all people in a party are working for same goal or for same reasons Three Headed Mo 0 There are 3 interrelated p 39 political party 0 Party in the electorate voters Party in government officeholders 0 Party organization activists 0 Why 0 Parties consist of those who want to govern those who want them to govern and those who send them to govern voters 0 This definition shows the diversity in our parties Party Organizatio 0 The formal structure or organiza i party National state amp ward orgs 0 Includes the activists and party officers 0 People who 0 to the national convention serve as electors an work for the party regardless of the candidate 0 Goals of this head of the monster Achieve maximal party strength Promote their political ideas and policies Activists want candidates that support party ideals to gain of ce 7 They might not care which Republican or Democrat wins as long as he or she is loyal to party objectives Party Organizatio 0 This head puts together caucuses amp conventions for selecting presidential amp other nominees Also creates and votes on the party platform 0 An of cial statement of beliefs values and policy positions that a national party convention issues National state and local orgs campaign for folks running under the party label There are times when a candidate will not receive local party endorsementsll A candidate can run under the banner without support of the party organization by winning the primary election 7 But they won t get help from the party organizationllll 7 When this happens its usually at the state or local level Party Organizatio 0 Another way to describe this part of39 the party would be as the bureaucracy of the party 0 The work horses of the political system 0 During the primaries it is the activists that come out and vote They give the candidate a shot at the job 0 Most visible during campaigns 0 When we talk about elections we will see how this fact affects the tenor of the campaigns Ie CA recall or 2004 election Party Organizatio 0 Is this part of the party pow w quot 0 Think about evangelicals and the Republican party This subgroup within the Republican party began working hard in the organization during the 1980s and 1990s a They helped change the guiding ideology of the Republican party 7 How Well they attended all the local events and voted They participated at the grassroots and now they are quite powerful in the Republican party 7 Think about the last electioncould GW Bush afford to alienate these activists Quick Quiz 0 Why did democratic acti think that having Nader in the 2004 presidential race would hurt John Kerry s chances 0 What does the spatial model of voting tell us 0 Go to the next slide please Why was the Dem Organization worr E I 0 Check out the spatial m e m Medi an Cobb Voter Kerry lt gt Bu Sh Nader Conservative Liberal Spatial Model of V 339 e o The model presented looks I your book 0 Now given Kerry s placement in this example you would expect that he could swing thos If way between him amp GW and get all the v07 to the left of him So Kerry winspotentially If Nader stayed in his presence splits the votes of those on the left leaving GW with a solid plurality and the victory This is what happened in 2000 7 But in 2004 Nader didn t have much of an impact Voters on the far left realized that voting for Nader actually helped Bush and decided to vote for their 2quot choice in hopes of avoiding their 3rd choice a If they had voted sincerely Bush s margin would have been larger Party in Governm o This head includes all the people who seekobtain office who run under a party label 0 Goals 0 obtain political office 0 control gov t Party in Governm 0 Now this head can be split urther 39 0 Subparties in government Legislative Bill Frist Senate majority lea is part of the Republican legislative party in government Executive Bush and Cheney are members of the Republican executive party in government Subparties have separate interests amp goals 0 This gets a bit confusing so focus on the bigger picture 0 There is a Republican party in government and a Democratic party in government 0 Both parties exist regardless of who controls government remember goal 1 Party in Governm This is the part of the party ref the media When the media talks about the Republicans passing a bill in the Senate they are talking about the Republican legislative party in government This part of the party takes predominance during the governing season Why separate out the parties in government 0 Well the different parties in government may con ict even if control of government is unified Late May 2005 25th the Republican House passed a bill allowing stem cell harvesting from fertllized eggs 7 President Bush vowed to veto the legislation if it passes the Senate Party in Governm 0 National and state parties in go may also conflict 0 The If the party in the executive is unpopular it may hurt the chances of those seeking state of ce under the same label party in government speaks for the party in general especially the presidential party in government The actions and proclamations of the office holders are associated with the party label The media reports it this way The public s view approval or disapproval of the party is shaped by the party in government 0 Think about itdo the apers cover statements by the national or state c airs of either party often How often do you hear about statements from Senator Wyden or Smith Party in Governm 0 There can be conflict betw party organization amp the party in government 0 There are times when the goal of maximizing party strength amp gaining office conflict Imagine a Republican running in a moderate district and the party platform calls for a ban on abortion amp instituting prayer in schools a If the candidate runs on the party platform she will have a hard time winning in the district 7 If she doesn t run on the platform she won t get support from the party organization Party in the Elect 39 0 Includes voters that identify with a party label This is not the same as the folks that partici in party activities in wards or precincts These are the folks that react to party appeals Included in the definition since the progressive movement in the late 1800s This movement provided for a broader role for the masses in party politics ie Primaries versus closed door meetings of party bosses to select nominees for of ce The primary system expanded suffrage ie secret ballots to prevent corruption Party in the Elect o The Constitution gives the states the power to determine the selection method for government officials 0 Most states use primaries nowadays even for state and local officials This means the electorate is critically important 7 Voters choose who will run under the party banner amp then choose who will sit in of ce Party in the Elect 7 Prior to the implementation of the primary the party organization selected nominees If you didn t received permission from the palc you didn t run 0 And if you tried anyway the party had controls over the voters 7 The implementation of the secret ballot broke that control Given the importance of the role of the party in the electorate any good definition of political parties must include the votersllll Implication of Party in Electorate on the Part 0 The progressive reforms wer big changes What effect did they have on our system 0 After progressive reforms party strength 44 Since the party didn t control the nomination any more there was no mechanism for reward or sanctionno hold over the office holder to force them to tow the party line follow the party platform a Party leaders don t pick candidates so candidates are not directly beholden to the party Implication of Party in Electorate on the Part 0 Now the voters choose the c 0 Constituent service is now more important than party loyalty Constituent service or casework helps you ge e nomination and the of ce 0 Other reforms hurt too 0 Staggered elections gubernatorial races are not held the same year as presidential races etc We greatly increased the number of elections that must be contested This causes difficulty for the party organization a They simply can t recruit and campaign for every election it would bankruptexhaust them Implication of Party in Electorate on the Part 0 Recently the parties have been revitalized amp gained some leverage backCan you guess how 5555 0 Loopholes in campaign finance reform they always find them allowed the parties to spend money independently of the candidate or against a candidate This soft money was crucial to many races McCainFeingold campaign nance reform law changed this but money is sometimes like water It nds the holes in any law Implication of Party in Electorate on the Part 0 This revitalization reverses historical trend 0 The statelocal parties used to be the important parts of the organization the machines Now the national party is much stronger it holds the purse strings It owns studios that allow members of Congress to produce slick commercials quickly for low cost owns phone banks off government property etc Implication of Party in Electorate on the Part 0 So some argue that the parties ar now quite strong They have adapt to a new era of campaigning Is doling out moneystrength What do parties do The Role of the Parties 0 As you have probably guess role of the parties has changed over past 50 years Remember the way it was Party org nominated candidates keeping candidates beholden to the party Patronage kept voters in line 7 Government jobs or contracts in exchange for support for the party 7 Machine politics like the Daley Machine in Chicago or Tammany Hall in NYC Machines secured bene ts for party members amp candidates so the party was very strong What do parties d 0 General activities Holds for all parties here amp abroad 0 Three broad categories of activit 1 Recruitment and Election 2 Education 3 Governing 0 Let s go over each of these in turn I note how these broad categories connect to the more refined categories from your text Recruitment amp Ele o The most obvious amp domina t activity of the American political party 0 The activity level of the parties reaches their height during the campaigns all heads are involved despite conflicting goals Some party organizations cease all activity when there is no election to contest a Connection to activities listed by your text recruit nominate contest elections and form governments Educa on Parties in all democratic systems promote political ideas and philosophies 0 In doing so they educate the public 0 They let the public know what they stand for in an attempt to get the vote In the US some would argue that our parties do not complete this function well Our parties do not have much ideology or ideas a For reasons we will discuss later it is dif cult for presidential candidates to spell out and support speci c programs during the campaign 7 Connect to text mobilization Educa on In Europe parties are exp have plan programs and re orms that will be implemented upon election 0 Why the difference Most European countries use a parliamentary system of government Voters vote more for the party and its leader like Tony Blair rather than the individual representative 7 The party that wins runs the government If they don t ful ll their promises they are held accountable A no con dence vote from the parliament no con dence in the leadership triggers a new election Educa on 0 Here we tend to hold indi rather than the party accountable This is a big difference To watch Tony Blair defend his governme navigate to the bbc and watch the latest Question Time program Governing Although the party organization doesn t have much control over th party in government there is still quite a bit of party discipline within the federal government 0 The party in government will work on the programs that please their constituents amp help them maintain their positions If these programs happen to align with the party platform so much the better 7 Connect to text coordinate policy provide accountability What do parties d r 0 These three are the general activities of political parties 0 I am not suggesting that all US partit fulfill these functions well or at all 0 In the US parties have to compete with interest groups to accomplish goals and get credit 0 Or they can leave some of the work to the groups The central position of the e ectora function means that the party in government is more important th the other two heads most of the time 0 Even if weaker still an important linkage institution for citizens And now for something different Why do we have a 5 party system Scholar have been asking the questions for quite some time 0 After all other democratic nations have multiple parties 0 The most similar systems Canada and Great Britain have 3 viable parties 0 Why don t we Why do we have a party system 0 Since the beginning our system has 39 been dominated by 2 parties 0 The players changed but the number didn t Federalist and Antifederalist Federalists and Democraticrepublicans Democrats and Whigs Democrats and Republicans 7 These two have been our main parties since the 1850 s v v52 g 4 But there is nothing that says on y two 39 Its not in the constitution or written into any of our laws 0 And this doesn t mean that we have always had two competitive parties 7 And it doesn t mean that minor parties or independent candidates have not appeared However over time the fact remains that only 2 parties at a time are viable can survive and win seats After all if a party can t gain seats in government its not much of a party is it Why do we have a party system quot8 139 a re 1 v 74h f4 Third or Minor Pa 0 However no third party has come close to winning the presidency 0 Only 8 succeeded in winning any electoral votes 0 As of 2000 only 5 third or independent candidates gained more than 10 of total vote So why 2 parties 0 Yet these new parties tend t appear and fade from the scene 0 And if they stick around they tend to replace one of the old parties DemocraticRepublicans replaced the Anti federalists Republicans replaced the Whigs Over time political scientists have come up with several different answers to this question 0 Let s see what you think The answers 0 Cultural 0 Some folks contend that our political system remains a two party system because of our unique culture 0 The population of the US has developed the mature attitude that compromise is necessary to deal with the diversity of views and needs in our nation And so we have developed a norm for 2 parties and distrust the issuebased party system of Europe The answers 0 Social consensus 0 Others think that the US has develo a social consensus regarding the fundamentals of our government 0 Most people accept the institutions of government the social norms of the nation and the predominant economic policy We are content with the system as it is The answers 0 Dualisms 0 Still others have suggested that 2 parties is simply the natural case 0 Issues have two sides and all the major cleavages in our history have had 2 sides So two parties can cover the dualisms in our politics a If they don t then a third party comes in until the parties absorb the sides of the new con ict The answers Are you buying any of these answers yet o What about the last one 0 The Institutional Explanation The Institutional Expla 8a 1 v 0 Electoral laws have implicat the shape of a party system 0 In the US we have a single member plurality district electoral system SMD 0 Candidate with most votes wins 0 You do not need a majority Focus is on the individual not the party 0 In most of Europe they have a proportional representation system 0 Gain of seats equal to proportion of vote gained This leads to a focus on the party not the individual The Institutional Explanation 0 It turns out that SMD is not v representative 0 The party receiving a plurality gets m more seats than votes 0 You don t get any seats for coming in 2quot I or 3rd Remember you don t need a majority For example the Conservative party in Great Britain won many elections in the 19805 without winning a majority BUT they won a majority of the districts l39y The Institutional Explanation 0 For a third party to gain some representation in SMD they must pass a high barrier 0 They must gain at least 3035 of the vote This is really high Most 3rd parties can t reach this 0 So SMD helps prevent 3WI parties because it is simply too difficult to be successful 0 In Europe parties gain seats by winning 5 of the vote The Institutional Explanation 0 Other institutional factors also he p Ballot restrictions it is difficult to be strong in multiple states and if you aren t you can t View the presidency Public campaign finance laws require that you receive 5 in each primary to receive public funds 0 The media tends to dismiss third parties 0 So it s a Vicious cycle 7 Little media attention means less recognition which leads to less media attention Interest groups Another possible f 0 Certainly the institutional explanation has a lot of merit 0 But we have another quirk in our system that may also help keep 3quot I parties from forming 0 Interest groups 3rd parties may not be necessary here because the proliferation growth of interest groups ensures that various issues and groups gain representation without having to elect of cials under a label Another possible f 0 Think about it 0 As the party organizations declined aft r the progressive movement interest 6 groups ook up the slack It has been found that parties will eclipse groups whenever they decide to represent an issue but the two major parties can t cover all issues 7 Parties must choose issues that are electorally Vilabltegiones that will help with election or re e ec 7 So when parties fail to represent an issue these days interest roups structure the debate and represen the population Conclusion For all of these reasons we have a 2 party system 0 Even though we have a very diverse country with multiple interests 0 Unlike European countries with multiple parties we have 2 parties and a huge interest group universe