Class Note for POLITSC 367 at OSU
Class Note for POLITSC 367 at OSU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Media and Politics Critical perspectives on media Media and campaigns Psychology of media effects Another quiz 0 Do you think that the news media in general are biased in favor of George Bush or are they biased against George Bush favor neither against 0 What is your personal opinion about George Bush favorable neutral unfavorable 50 It s the Media s Fault o The number of periodical or semiperiodical publications in the United States surpasses a beliefbutin America three quarters of the bulky newspaper put before you will be full of advertisements and the rest will usually contain political news orjust anecdotes only at long intervals and in some obscure corner will one find on of those burning arguments which for us are the readers daily food Alexis de Tocqueville Democracy in America originally published in 1835 o A recent review of communications research identified no fewer than 1043 effects of television on social behaviora casual reading of the political communication literature suggests that television has been held responsible for declining voter turnout increased disenchantment with governmental institutions weakening of political parties changes in the strategies of leadership and governance and other fundamental changes in the political process Shanto lyengar The Accessibility Bias in Politics Television News and Public Opinion 1990 51 Media and Public Opinion o Remember it s a medium two or more media The media have a big impact on politics As the most popular medium television E a big impact on politics 0 Metaphors for media effects The media as a window on the world The media as a selective filter of outside information The media as distorters of information o Deliberate media bias 0 Incidental media bias Question Can the media influence opinions on the war in Iraq 52 Historical Eras in Media Studies a Walter Lippman39s insights The media create pictures inside our heads of the world outside 0 WWl and the quotBig Scare era The Nazis and the Allied countries used broadcast propaganda to rally public support Carl Hovland and associates seemed to be unlocking the scientific secrets of successful propaganda o The quotMinimal Effectsquot Era Studies by Lazarsfeld and colleagues found little attitude change over the course of a political campaign Many studies revealed small effects of dramatic television events 0 The Modern Era What are the effects of merely covering an issue What are the effects of the content of that coverage 53 Who Won the Debate 80 60 Nixon versus Kennedy 1960 4 20 Kennedy Undecided PreDe bate Preference Nixon l Kennedy won I Undecided l Nixon won 100 Carter versus I Carter won Reagan 1980 60 I Tie 40 20 0 Carter Undecided PreDebate Preference Reagan l Reagan won 54 Media bias 0 Liberal Bias Argument Journalists have an inherently antiestablishment anti traditional progressive mentality Evidence Practicing journalists tend to be more liberal than average on some social issues a quotStatus Quoquot Bias Media are owned and operated by business people They would never do anything to challenge the prevailing capitalist economic system or their advertisers Evidence Newspapers endorse Republican candidates more often than Democratic candidates a The Hostile Media Phenomenon Vallone Ross amp Lepper o Hypercriticism and demobilization 55 Hostile Media Perceptions Prols rael Bias ProArab Bias 6 5 ProIsrael Prior Attitudes ProArab 56 January 15 1999 THE TRIAL OF THE PRESIDENT THE CAPITAL Business as Usual but With TV Turned On Low By RICHARD W STEVENSON WASHINGTON As the Senate listened to the case for her husband39s removal from office Thursday Hillary Rodham Clinton39s mind was a world away on Mars to be precise Under a panorama of the Martian landscape in the planetarium at the National Air and Space Museum Mrs Clinton unveiled a program called the MarsMillennium Project through which schoolchildren will develop plans for how a colony on the red planet would function quotIt Takes a Villagequot meets quotThe Martian Chroniclesquot It was not just his wife who was taking a page from the playbook of the compartmentalizer in chief as the impeachment proceedings against President Clinton unfolded on Capitol Hill and on television screens throughout Washington Within the Clinton administration predictably there was a concerted effort not just to get on with the people39s work but to be seen as getting on with the people39s work Clinton had lunch with Vice President Al Gore no talk of impeachment there Gore39s aides said and worked on his State of the Union address Late in the day Clinton canceled a trip to New York because of the wintry weather At the Pentagon Deputy Defense Secretary John Hamre reported that the military was going all out to insure that software problems associated with the year 2000 would not imperil national security 57 Mass Media Practices 0 Important media norms and values Objectivity and fairness Profitability Increasing market share Efficiency 0 Effects on the news Heavy reliance on official sources quotTwo sidedquot arguments quotPack Journalismquot Sensationalism 0 Coverage of lurid crimes creates a culture of fear People exaggerate the danger of random violence 58 Sensationalism the K V ku d m quotInnquot I mmm I mi 4mnmmx I V 39 im a a1trnm i 39 A mmm mmm Mr 5 39 i i iquot I 39 quot m39m39 r Public masturbation 39 39 EXhUImEI t I tnspeak b llt quot 39 39 famnus deaths 5339 WI F r4 5 an Riv Aw and an 59 Sensationalism lhxm I mmyqu HMI39HHHH w Wm m D umm rmd n a H4HH ml rmhmJU Mn uumuww uh Hvuxwthm up IHI uJJHn mr whamn Snmum M mm m u n u u HM Surrounded bV fugitives J m m HI Jlhm MIIN m n m Almuh Mu mer WWW mm Hun m 391HMr m m w mm mm mem Mm HIHHNMHH K 4 mmmnl 1H U u4 HIA39H mmmm x m Imm 60 TwoSided Coverage Bea Lashunta and the arena Hill FEMININE mmmmnu Emma hm 11 him all Walgggmnhydly 7 mnpnl mainly mum39ultniw l39 Ilrmnmcmtri Irmm mm 51iir il m1 I ny rlag Davies m lllrhl 14 v11rgw 4quot I Au a vu have 61 Media and campaigns 0 Horse race coverage Politics is a game of winners and losers not a serious debate over ideas and issues Campaign strategies tactics victories and blunders are the focus of coverage Early primary victories build momentum 0 Coverage of Iowa and New Hampshire races is far out of proportion to their relative delegate share 0 States compete to position their primaries amp caucuses earlier in the season 0 Focus on candidate character and image Personality flaws are fair game Parties become less important 62 1 m mm Ilarl mgrm w Gum s Pd Prnlllnm mic Elan i luluquot Partlal Ham Runawamu 7 I I ilinlun hasn39t Horse Race sumneam 39 L Ilnmenkl nll 1 Fauna BInun Show Bola I Still Far Behind 63 Psychology of Media Effects Learning The media provide information that helps us make good political decisions Delli Carpini amp Keeter 0 Those who pay more attention to the news are better informed 0 Those who are better informed make more rational political choices Campaign ads those who see a lot of them are better informed about candidate positions on the issues 64 Agendasetting and Priming Bernard Cohen The pressmay not be successful in telling its readers what to think but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about 65 Psychology of Media Effects 0 Agendasetting Media attention to a problem means the public will consider that problem more important Media attention to an issue leads the public to see that issue as more important lyengar amp Kinder s experiments 0 Priming Media attention to an issue causes opinions on that issue to carry greater weight or influence in evaluations of the president lyengar and Kinder s experiments Krosnick and Kinder s natural experiment 0 The breaking IranContra scandal increase the salience of foreign policy issues 0 Judgments of Reagan s performance in domain of foreign policy had increased influence on evaluations of his performance in general 66 AgendaSetting by TV News FIGURE 32 TV NEWS ClovBmge and Publlic Q39pirIiIZm Inward ln li n 1974 1330 b E PERCENT OF PUBLIC 15 3972 PERCENT mums INFLFITIOH its HATIUM39 MOST IMPDMMIT PROBLEM numeEa or W 53 aromas NEWE STCIFHES PER MGMTH Em INFLATION Ies In 5 II 4 39I I J 11 ail 1quot Ill l39 L quot 1 lI 1 g I I 394 r I 1 II I 139 I I l quot I n I39 quotIf quot quot u 139 I I r 39I I I 39 I I I I T ETA 575 IIST PMquot 51975 15T5 1330 Suurce nIPOYunkelcwichNu lionul Eiemiun Sfudiea Survays Vanderbi T II39 Ngws Abstracts lyengar amp Kinder s Priming Experiments Problem No TV Coverage TV Coverage Difference Defense 27 62 35 Defense 26 72 46 Inflation 01 37 38 Unemployment 69 73 04 Entries show the relationship between evaluations of the president39s performance in specific areas and evaluations of his performance in general 68 Psychology of Media Effects 0 Framing The content of a story shapes our perceptions judgments and opinions Media Framing Media organizations have standard story frames that can apply to almost any issue Iyengar episodic vs thematic media frames 0 Episodic frames focus on isolated events lead to more internal attributions for social problems 0 Thematic frames focus on general trends lead to more external attributions for social problems Personalization frame Conflict frame 69
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