Note for BIOLOGY 101 with Professor Pangle at OSU 02
Note for BIOLOGY 101 with Professor Pangle at OSU 02
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 1 s a pathway by which we can come to discover and better understand the world around us Explains the natural world Does not deal with morals Science is peerreviewAll work is public access Reviewed by experts 90 gets rejected Is the study of living things Science has structure new 1 4i 1 V Test does not support hypothesis Obsenations Question Hypothesis Prediction TestExperiment L Test supports hypothesis 5 Make additional predictions A is an educated guess a possible explanation based on obsenation basis for experiment must be testable must be falsifiable A Is a repeatedly verified hypothesis generalized solidly supported by a large body of evidence Elements com mon to most TreatmentExperimental G roup exposed to treatmentControl G rou p not exposedVa ria bles Welldesigned experiments controlling variablesproper controlrandomizedblind or doubleblind Lecture 2 Biological Sciences BiochemistryMolecular Biology atoms molecules Cell biology cells tissues PhysiologyAnatomyH istology orga ns Ecology orga n isms populations com m u nities ecosystems la ndsca pes regions biosphere ExoBiology solar system galaxy Evolution the u n ifying theow Life bioticNonlife a biotic 1 Order 2 Regulationhomeostasis 3 Energy 4 Response to the environment things evolve 5 Reproduction 6 Evolution Cell basic unit of lifeProkawotic Cell simpleEukaryotic Cell nucleus Biogenesis 4 stage hypothesis for how life arose 1Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers Monomers simple sugars amino acids fatty acids nucleotides 2 Abiotic synthesis of polymers Polymers carbs protein lipids DNARNA 3 Formation of precells 4 Origin of selfreplication f quothypothesisquot then prediction Lecture 3 is a change in gene frequency in a population overtime population oforganisms in same species evolution slight change in allele frequencies in a population overone ora few generations Change within a species or closely related species antibiotic resistance evolution la rge scale products of evolutionary change involving the origins of new groups of organismsAccumulated effects of microevolution overtime Production of new species and adaptive radiation fossil record DNA comparative anatomy Example Bug being resistant to a pesticide Variations exists in the population before any selectionPopulations evolve not individualsSelection is not random Mechanisms Driving ii Hi In 1 Mutations source of variation randomMutations can be good or badCaused by mutagens tanning beds etc 2 Migration gene flow 3 Genetic Drift random small pop affectedChanges in allele frequency without selection Random mortality Rapid changes in environment 4 Natural Selection individuals with certain traits reproduce more successfullyspecific individuals not random 1 2 x or natural selection adaptive evolution 1 Variation 2 Heritability 3 Selection different reproductive success 3 types of 1Stabil ing peak gets narrower 2 Directional peak shifts 3 Disruptive two pea ks form example of most speciation Paradox of va rIatIon Evolution requires variation but natural selection eliminates variation eventually variance might decrease Special cases of natural selection 1 Sexual Selection process by which natural selection favors traits that give an advantage in attracting mates 2 Artificial Selection humans act as the selection ex dog breeding M how many kids you have relative to others in your environment Natural Selection does not lead to perfect organisms environments change quickly variation multiple ways to be perfectquot alternative forms ofa gene brown eyes blue eyes etc sex cells sperm oregg each human gamete has 23 chromosomes Lecture 4 Biological Species Concept 1 Breed with each other 2 Produce offspring 3 Offspring must be fertile Lecture 5 Origin of SpeciesSpeciation A consequence of evolution not evolution Speciation requires isolation as species move apart they must stay separate to avoid coming back together as one species 1 er physically separate 2 together just acquire a preference lightning bugs We have a common ancestorwith apes we did not come from apes PreDarwin thinking 1 details in nature come from God 2 m reproduce exponentially worked with math 3 geologist evidence that the planet is much olderthan believed used sedimentation as evidence hypothesis of evolution all things come from something and all things change 1 There are naturally existing differences in a population 2 More offspring are produced that can survive 3 Organisms with favorable variation will be presened 4 Accumulation of differences overtime leads to adaptive radiation 15mm u 194 occurs when a small numberof species diversify into a larger number of speciesMacroevolution3 phenomena 1 Mass extinction events competition suddenly eliminated 2 Colonization Events new location with new recourses and less competitors 3 Evolutionary Innovations a feature that increases fitness Example Darwin39s finches going to the Galapagos Islands Evidence of evolution peppered moth stow in England HumanDriven Evolution 1 Rapid evolution among viruses HIVAIDS 2 Rapid evolution among insects Mosquitoes 3 Rapid evolution among plants Weeds process of natural selection in which features of organisms not closely related come to resemble each other because of similarselective forces Ex hummingbirds m process of natural selection in which features of organisms related to each othertake on different forms because of different selective pressures Ex Darwin39s finches Fossils dead organisms covered by sediment sedimentation occurs at a constant rate water enters and creates a reaction evolutionawtree relationship between organisms along an evolutionawtimeline Whale Sequence mammals going from land to sea Fish to amphibians DNA evidence for macroevolution sequencinggetting letters from codeThe more similarthe DNA the more recent the split Structures body structures in different organisms that have been modified to serve different purposes yet are inherited from a common ancestor Structures a structure once useful to organisms but has lost function over evolutionawtime Lecture 6 Tempo of evolution 1 i change 2 Equilibrium goes from no change to a lot of change at once Diversity of life Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Includes Protists Plants Fungi Animals Why do we classify 1 Bring orderto chaos 2 Understand relationships between organisms 3 Develop hypothesis aboutthe status of species on Earth today How do we classify 1 Identify traits 2 Identify primitive and advanced conditions 3 Identify common ancestors 4 Phylogeny showing common ancestors lie in 2 domains both of which are prokaryotes but vastly different similarcell structure different outer membrane different machinewto copy DNA All Prokaryotes 1 No organelles including no nucleus 2 DNARNA is circular 3 No sexual reproduction 4 Rapid reproduction 5 Variety in morphology and what they eat E l Cyanobacteria do photosynthesis 2 Aerobic bacteria require oxygen 3 Anaerobic bacteria doesn39t require oxygen uses sulfur Good bacteria recycling pollutants extremeophiles love extremes not classified no domain use the host to replicate itself Eukawotes 1Protists 2 Plants 3 Fungi 4 Animals Majority are unicellular few multicellular 1 Protozoans mostly aquatic eat bacteria cause of bad diseases malaria 2 Slime Molds resemble fungi good example of convergent evolution m 3 Algae the photosynthetic protozoans 4 Seaweeds multicellular protists Endosymbiosis one thing living inside another 1 archaea and 1 bacteria to create eukarya Bacteria and Protists can do Lecture 7 Numberof species Plants evolved from protists main difference is independence from water are always multicellular 39 Challenges for 1 Getting waterto your cells 2 Support structuresto stand up 3 Dispersal of gametes waterdoesn t do it 4 Sunlight process of going from 1 diploid cell into a trillion cells E when a diploid cell splits instead of copies into two haploid cells Gametophyte39s produce gametes r Sporophytes produce spores gametophyte is domInant phase nonvascular nquotgenetic material 2n 1 from mother 1 from father diploid 1n haploid Charoph es Byrophytes Seedless Vascular Plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms mosses no real rootslive near waterrelies on diffusion in waterto get nutrientsdepend on waterfor reproductionmost of life haploid heterotrophsbig recyclersproduce Mresponsible for cheeseacquire nutrients by absorptionuse spores for reprod uctiondecomposers Animals multicellularmobileheterotrophs Lecture 8 Symmetry body structure like a wheel or pie any cut through center would divide the organism into identical halves Symmetw body structure with left and right sides which are mirror images more advanced Digestion fluid filled cavity that provides cushioning to the internal organs relates to energy 1 Acoelomate movement impacts digestion carwithout airbag or seatbelt flatworm 2 Pseudocoelomate some cushioning from movement car without seatbelt earthworm 3 Coelomate maximum cushioning from movement car with seatbelt and airbag Chordates backbone interacton between individuals and their environment in and with their natural world 5 levels 1 Biosphere entire earth 2 Ecosystem add in abioticthings food chain 3 Community interacts with other species predators 4 Population multiple individuals 5 Organism individual Population Ecology influenced by population density structure size and growth rate PopDistribution predation H Pop Distribution competition Population Dynamic ways in which populations change in abundance overtime Growth grows toward M max of organisms an environment can support Competitive Exclusion when one species excludes the other op Distribution mutualism Lecture 9 Competition WMithin a species members oftwo different species Tquot Two strategies 1 Generalists eat evewthingthey can 2 Specialists picky eaters could be hard to find a meal PredatorPreyArms Race idea of a game going on between a predator and prey ex prey becoming more poisonous as snakes become more resistant Energy flows through ecosystems Sun Autotrophsproducer Heterotrophsconsumer 39 one species is more important to the food web than any other if removed web would fall apart Behavioral Ecology how behavior affects ecology and how ecology affects behavior Mating parental antipredator foraging behaviors highest benefit for lowest cost Lecture 10 Environmental Issues anything affecting the environment negatively caused by humans Overpopulation overexploiting Earth s resources change Earth s landscape Global Warming some heat energy escapes into space some radiant heat is trapped by greenhouse gases most are C02 doesn39t disappearfor a longtime caused by combustion of fossil fuels 39 builds on itself not gradual changes ice shelf breaking in 27 days 1 loss of biodiversity species go extinct we are going through a i 2 Changes in species distribution and abundance 3 Agent of natural selection Why greenhouse gases are important 1 Large carbon source 2 Explain why earth is heating up 3 Trap heat and make earth livable Invasive Species species that occur outside of their native ranges because of human influence 90 ofthem are plants cost us a fortune Overexploitation overharvesting of natural resources same 3 consequences as above Pollution biological magnification DDT getting stuck in waters then getting in organisms then those organisms getting eaten by otherorganisms ll right now
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